Table of Contents

Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators


Thank you so much! November 19, at 7: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, AAS was used to determine the chemical composition of the clay and the concentration of heavy metals on the paints produced. September 28, at 5: It's so good on natural hair seriously! Finite Element Methods is a subject where we deal with the elements but not the entire body at once.

This Week in PNAS


Research on Sandy Alfisoils of Cameroon and Mali. Impact of land- use changes on the processes in the Elbow river watershed in southern Alberta. Swayne, Wanhong Yang, A.

Landuse change and hydrologic processes: Ajax Architecture Implementation Techniques Abstract: Today's rich Web applications use a mix of Java Script and asynchronous communication with the application server. This mechanism is also known as Ajax: The intent of Ajax is to exchange small pieces of data between the browser and the application server, and in doing so, use partial page refresh instead of reloading the entire Web page.

However, AJAX combines these technologies to let Web pages retrieve small amounts of data from the server without having to reload the entire page. This capability makes Web pages more interactive and lets them behave like local applications. Many new and extremely popular Web applications have been introduced such as Google Maps, Google Docs, Flickr, and so on.

Ajax Toolkits such as Dojo allow web developers to build Web 2. Web applications, Java Script, Web application 2. Jesse James Garrett 18 February A New Approach to Web Applications". Retrieved 19 June Ullman, Chris March Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 25 June Retrieved 17 May Retrieved 4 August Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 4 July Archived from the original on 29 May Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 21 October In this paper we used modified VBLAST to lessen its computational complexity reducing the number of successive iterations.

As a result of this simplification, the computational complexity of the detection is lowered significantly. An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel," in Proc.

Wong Kwan wai,chi-YingTsui and cheng,R. H Golub and C. Van Loan , Matrix Computations, third ed. Composite materials are ideal for aerospace applications due to their high strength to weight ratio and their excellent fatigue resistance. Fiber reinforced Composite is widely used in light weight structures for different applications.

The main properties that describe a composite material are the engineering constants and the strength properties of a single unidirectional lamina that make the laminated structure. The experimental evaluation of these properties is quite costly and time consuming because they are functions of several variables such as the individual constituents of the composite, fiber volume fraction, packing geometry and fabrication processes.

Hence, analytical models to predict these properties were developed by researchers to aid the design of composites. In recent years numerous failure theories have been proposed and are available to the composite structural designer. Object of this review is to gather the available guide lines for theoretical models of failure analysis of fiber reinforced Composite.

Tao, Purdue University, D. Fault studies are important power system analysis for stable and economical operations of power systems. Faults are categorised as symmetrical and unsymmetrical.

In this paper, three-phase symmetrical fault is simulated using the Nigerian Bus, kV Transmission Grid. Two different MatLab based programmes were developed; one program was for Load Flow Studies which determines prefault conditions for the power system based on Newton-Raphson method. The other program determines fault current magnitudes for threephase short-circuit on the power system.

The information gained from the fault studies can be used for proper relay select Key words: Reference [1] Muhammad, Aree A. Chand and Company Ltd. Investment in inventory absorbs a large portion of the working capital of a company and often it represents a large portion of the total assets of a business.

By improving return on investment by increasing the rate of inventory turnover, management often wants to ensure economic efficiency. Effective inventory management enables a firm to provide lower costs, rapid response and flexibility for its customers. Just-in-time JIT philosophy is most widely adopted and practices in the recent years worldwide. It aims at reducing total production costs by producing only what is immediately needed and eliminates wastes.

It is based on a radically different concept, deviating substantially from the existing manufacturing practices in many respects. It is a very effective tool to reduce the wastage of inventory and manage it effectively.

It has the potential to bring substantial changes in the existing setup of a company; can give it a new face, broaden its acceptability and ensure a longer life. It can strategically change the atmosphere needed for longer survival. The new outlook acquired by the company can meet global expectations of the customers. JIT happens to provide global markets. The present paper examines the strategic role of JIT in inventory management.

Information technology helps JIT in managing inventory effectively, as it helps in integrating the components of supply chain network. Quality aspect of inventory management has also been discussed. Getting control of just-in-time, Harvard Business Review, pp. Ward, P May L and Peterson, L.

Management failure, John Wiley, U. The design has been proposed such that it shows a decrease in the value of ratio of the area of elliptical air holes to that of the wafer dimension. The effect of variation in wafer dimension of a constant lattice size is analyzed for observing the unique properties of PCF like dispersion, birefringence, confinement loss and other polarizing properties.

The dispersion reported is almost zero at a wavelength of 0. It is observed that all the structures proposed has shown the most negative dispersion in between the wavelength range of 0. Besides zero confinement loss is observed at a wavelength of 0. Russell, "Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers," Science, vol. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers: Fujita, "Opticalproperties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber", Opt.

Russell, "Endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Sankawa, ""Dispersion flattened photoniccrystal fiber with large effective area and low confinement loss," J. Haxha,"Highly birefringent PCF with ultralow chromatic dispersion and low confinement loss", Journal of light wave technology, Vol. M Abdur,Namihira, Yoshinori,"Simultaneous control of dispersion and confinement loss with octogonal PCF for communication system", The international conference on electrical engineering , No.

Mede, Photonic crystal fiber: Molding the flow of light, 2nd edition, Priceton University Press, A better way for enhancement in productivity Abstract: Productivity is the impact of peoples working together.

Machines are merely an extended way of collective imagination and energy. Lean Manufacturing is the most used method for continues improvement of business. Organization management philosophy focusing on the reduction of wastage to improve overall customer value. It is commonly believed that Lean started in Japan "The notable activities in keeping the price of Ford products low is the steady restriction of the production cycle.

The longer an article is in the process of manufacture and the more it is moved about, the greater is its ultimate cost. Although individual components or building blocks of Lean may be tactical and narrowly focused, we can only achieve maximum effectiveness by using them together and applying them cross-functionally through the system.

Roberts, a , "Does managementmatter: Van Reenen b , "Americans do I. An Integrated Approach to Just-in- [3]. Journal of Operations Management, 19 1 , The foremost objective of the proposed research is to synthesize magnetically-active CdTe nanowires that can be manipulated by magnetic fields.

The ability to do so will facilitate fabrication of molecular electronics and a whole host of other potential applications. Doped CdTe particles with suitable magnetic moments will then be converted to CdTe wires using a technique originally developed for undoped CdTe.

The changes in morphology, size, composition, and structure will be monitored using the same analytical methods used for characterization of the precursor nanoparticles. Finally, nanowires that possess a sufficient magnetic moment will be aligned using a magnetic field to prove the viability of this approach for manufacturing nanoscale devices and electronics. A new approach to a fundamental technology, Eurotechnology Japan K. Jun, Y; Jung, Y.

B, , , 9. In this paper, it is aimed to deal with the interactions of harmonic currents produced by different single phase loads. For this purpose, compact fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, and electric heaters were chosen as single phase loads. The study was performed by adopting a full range of response surface methodology using Box—Behnken experimental design to express the net harmonic current 3rd and 5th as an empirical model.

The model provided an excellent explanation of the relationship among the number of loads and the net harmonic currents. Contour graphs of some of the harmonic currents was plotted to show the interactions clearly and to discuss the results of model in the graphic detail. The results of experiments showed that the harmonic interaction between the loads can be defined as a regression model which is statistically significant.

Doyle, "Estimating the net harmonic currents produced by selected distributed single-phase loads: Prudenzi, "The continuous harmonic monitoring of single-phase electronic appliances: Mohamed, "Determining harmonic characteristics of typical single phase non-linear loads", Proc.

In this paper, an efficient method for high speed hardware implementation of AES algorithm is presented. So far, many implementations of AES have been proposed, for various goals that effect the Sub Byte transformation in various ways. These methods of implementation are based on combinational logic and are done in polynomial bases. In the proposed architecture, it is done by using composite field arithmetic in normal bases. In addition, efficient key expansion architecture suitable for 6 sub pipelined round units is also presented.

Drutarovsky, Two methods of Rijndael mplementation in reconfigurable hardware, in Proc. Verbauwhede, Architectural optimization for a 1. Rijmen, Efficient Implementation of the Rijndael S-box, Available online at www.

Rohatgi, Efficient implementation of Rijndael encryption with composite field arithmetic, in Proc. FPL , Portugal, Sept. The paper presents a new approach to improve the performance of finger-vein identification systems presented in the literature. The proposed system simultaneously acquires the finger-vein and low-resolution fingerprint images and combines these two evidences using a novel score-level combination strategy.

We examine the previously proposed finger-vein identification approaches and develop a new approach that illustrates it superiority over prior published efforts. We develop and investigate two new scorelevel combinations, i. Park, "Restoration method of skin scattering blurred vein image for finger vein recognition," Electron.

Ye, "Driver identification using finger-vein patterns with Radon transform and neural network," Expert Sys. Patent 20 A1, Apr. Extraction of finger-vein patterns using maximum curvature points in image profiles - N. Human identification using knucklecodes - A. Personal recognition using hand-shape and texture - A. High resolution fingerprint matching using level 3 features - A.

Determining the atmospheric stability classes for Mazoe in Northern Zimbabwe Abstract: The paper presents the method that was used in determining the atmospheric stability classes for a place called Mazoe Citrus situated in Northern Zimbabwe for two consecutive years, and The stability classes are an important tool to be used in the environmental impact assessment for an area before an industrial power plant is set up. International journal of environment and Pollution, 14 6 , , Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics; Sprigler 93 3 , , Y, Lamb B leclers M.

Y, Lovejoy S, Multifractional analysis of line source plume concentration in surface layer flows. Journal of applied Meteorology 40, , H, Instanteneous concentration fluctuations in point source plumes, AlChE journal 32 10 , , A, Atmospheric transport and diffusion over cities; Nuclear safety 13, , H, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, National information services, Samples of African bush mango Irvingia gabonensis were collected from the wild, sun dried for four days to a moisture content of The kernels were divided into samples A and B; sample B was sun dried for three days to obtain different moisture content level from sample A.

Both samples were then used for the experiments. Some selected physical and mechanical properties of dika nut were determined at two moisture content levels. This study was done under approved standard laboratory conditions using standard engineering methods and instruments. The two moisture content levels of The result revealed higher values for the physical properties at moisture content level of The following values were obtained for samples A and B respectively: The coefficient of static friction was highest on plywood and least on glass for both samples.

From the values obtained, it appears the increase in sizes of dika kernel may aid a decrease in coefficient of static friction. The force required to fracture and compress sample A are 25N and The force required to fracture and compress sample B was also gotten as African bush mango, kernel, moisture content, physical properties, mechanical properties Reference 1.

Determination of fungi and aflatoxin in shelved bush mango seeds Irvingia spp. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5 Marketing trends and potentials for Irvingia gabonensis products in Nigeria. Irvingia gabonensis, May , Ibadan, Nigeria.

Some physical properties of fenugreek Trigonellafoenum-graceuml seeds. Journal of food Engineering. Mechanical properties of corncob under quasi-static radial compression. Transactions of the ASAE, 26, Moisture Measurement — Un-ground grain and seeds. ASABE standards, pp Physical and thermal properties of coffee. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. Physical properties of soybean.

Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 56 pp. Extraction and Processing of Agbono Cotyledon for long shelf-life. Physical properties of sunflower seeds. Determination of physical properties of some Agricultural Grains. Research Journal of Applied sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2 5: In this paper alternate mechanism for design and analysis of small size stone crusher mechanism is discussed.

The basic idea is to optimize the design of the crusher which would be best suited for stone which need crushing force of 3 Tons. Presently for reducing sizes of stones from 10cm x 10cm to 2. Dynamic, Kinematic synthesis and analysis, Sector gear, Static. Reference 1 Anjali J. Gupta, Theory of Machines, edition 8 Robert L.

Norton,Machine Design,pearson Second edition. D Thesis in Minning and Mineral Engineering, "Fracture toughness based models for the prediction of power consumption,product size, and capacity of jaw crushers" July This paper focuses on the study of magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow of a micropolar fluid near a stagnation point on a vertical stretching sheet in the presence of radiation and mass transfer.

Using the similarity transformations, the governing equations have been transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resultant dimensionless governing equations are solved employing fourth order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique.

The effects of various governing parameters, namely, material parameter, radiation parameter, magnetic parameter and velocity ratio parameter on the velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration, as well as the skin friction, the rate of heat transfer and the rate of mass transfer have been computed and shown graphically.

It is observed that the micropolar fluid helps in the reduction of drag forces and also act as a cooling agent. Reference [1] Eringen, A. Alouini, Digital Communications over Fading Channels. Comparison of Interestingness Measures: Data Mining is considered to be a step of paramount importance in the process of Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

The term "Interestingness Measure" unequivocally forms a very essential aspect of extraction of "interesting" rules from databases. As there are a huge number of association rules or patterns that are generated by most Association Rule Mining Algorithms, there arises a need to prune away the unnecessary and unwanted rules.

The rules that are crucial and indispensable can therefore be presented to the end user based on the application of these "Interestingness Measures". The reason this is done is so that the user gets a narrow focus on only those rules that will provide better business understanding and intelligence. However, there are a plethora of measures available today, and selecting the best amongst them requires a thorough research on each of them. This paper therefore provides a comparative study of certain important measures, thereby highlighting which measure is apt for application in which situation.

International Journal of Computer Applications 62 15 , , International Journal of Computer Applications 54 11 , , User oriented description and multiple criteria decision aid, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume , issue 2 January 16, , The papers aim to make a comparative study of binary phase codes in Radar pulse compression. Pulse compression allows radar to use long waveforms in order to obtain high energy and simultaneously achieve the resolution of a short pulse by internal modulation of the longpulse.

This technique increases signal bandwidth through frequency or phase coding. This paper does a comparative analysis of binary codes based on the simulation results of their autocorrelation function and identifies 13 bit Barker code as the most optimal binary code for surveillance radar.

Reed—Solomon RS codes are widely used to identify and correct errors in storage systems and transmission and. When RS codes are used for so many memory system and reduces error in data. Reed-Solomon codes are the most used in digital data storage systems, but powerful for tool burst errors.

To correct multiple random errors and burst errors in order, The composing of product code in to column-wise RS codes and row-wise RS codes may allow to decode multiple errors beyond their error correction capability. The consists of proposed code is two shortened RS codes and a conventional Reed-Solomon code. Reed-Solomon codes are the most Powerful used in data storage systems. The proposed code can correct 16 symbol errors.

Whitaker, "An ultra-low power, radiation-tolerant reed Solomon encoder for space applications," in. Tungsten inert gas welding is one of the widely used techniques for joining ferrous and non ferrous metals. TIG welding offers several advantages like joining of dissimilar metals, low heat affected zone, absence of slag etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of TIG welding process parameters on welding of Aluminium Response Surface Methodology was used to conduct the experiments.

The parameters selected for controlling the process are welding speed, current and gas flow rate. Strength of welded joints were tested by a UTM. Percent elongation was also calculated to evaluate the ductility of the welded joint.

From the results of the experiments, mathematical models have been developed to study the effect of process parameters on tensile strength and percent elongation.

Optimization was done to find optimum welding conditions to maximize tensile strength and percent elongation of welded specimen. Confirmation tests were also conducted to validate the optimum parameter settings. Ravindra reddy, "Parameter design for MIG welding of Al- alloy using Taguchi technique", Journal of scientific and industrial research, vol 70,,pp. Balasubramanian, "Optimization of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process parameters to attain maximum tensile strength in AZ31B magnesium alloy", Trans.

International Journal of Engineering research and applications, vol2,, pp. Jayabalan,"Predictio n and optimization of Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding process parameters to obtain sound weld pool geometry in Titanium alloy using lexicographic method",JMEPEG 18,,pp Datta, "Prediction of weld bead geometry and penetration in shielded metal arc welding using artificial neural network", Journal of material processing technology, ,pp , [10] P.

Murugan, "optimization of weld bead geometry for stainless steel claddings deposited by FCAW" Journal of material processing technology,vol ,,pp. In this paper, images of real- world natural scenes and manmade structures of different depth are taken. With increase in image depth , roughness increases in case of man-made structures whereas natural scene images become smooth, thus reducing the local roughness of the picture. Such kind of specific arrangement produces a particular spatial pattern of dominant orientations and scales that can be described using Gabor filter as it gives the local estimate of frequency content in an image.

Here various techniques are used i. Here the real scene images are classified in four classes such as near natural, near manmade, far natural and far manmade. Gabor filter only classify into low energy and high energy scenes. In the proposed method i.

Its properties like low cost, high bandwidth and significant progress has been made in understandingthe behavior of TCP and congestion-controlled traffic over CSMA based multihop wireless networks. Despite these advances, however, no prior work identified severe throughput imbalances in the basic scenario of mesh networks, in which a one-hop flow contends with a two-hop flow for gateway access.

In this paper, we demonstrate via real network measurements, testbed experiments, and an analytical model that starvation exists in such a scenario; i. Our analytical model yields a solution consisting of a simple contention window policy that can be implemented via standard mechanisms defined in IEEE Despite its simplicity, we demonstrate through analysis, experiments, and simulations that the policy has a powerful effect on network-wide behavior, shifting the network's queuing points, mitigating problematic MAC and transport behavior, and ensuring that TCP flows obtain a fair share of the gateway bandwidth, irrespective of their spatial location.

Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2. The electrocardiogram ECG is widely used for diagnosis of heart diseases. Good quality of ECG is utilized by physicians for interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena.

However, in real situations, ECG recordings are often corrupted by artifacts. Noise severely limits the utility of the recorded ECG and thus need to be removed, for better clinical evaluation.

Donoho and Johnstone [4, 5, 10] proposed wavelet thresholding denoising method based on discrete wavelet transform DWT with universal threshold is suitable for non-stationary signals such as ECG signal. In the present paper a new thresholding technique is proposed for de-noising of ECG signal. This new de-noising method is called as improved thresholding de-noising method could be regarded as a compromising between hardand soft-thresholding de-noising methods.

The advantage of the improved thresholding de-noising method is that it retains both the geometrical characteristics of the original ECG signal and variations in the amplitudes of various ECG waveforms effectively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is better than traditional wavelet thresholding de-noising methods in the aspects of remaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal and in improvement of signal-tonoise ratio SNR.

ECG signal, wavelet de-noising, discrete wavelet transform, improved thresholding Reference [1] Pan. Mc Clintock, and A. Stefanovska, "Noise and deterministic in cardiovascular dynamics", Physica A. Johnstone, "Ideal spatial adaptation via wavelet shrinkage", Biometrika, , Vol. Marques de sa, "ECG noise filtering using wavelets with softthresholding methods", Computers in Cardiology, vol.

Mallat, "A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: Johnstone, "Adapting to unknown smoothness via wavelet shrinkage", J. Zhao, "Three novel models of threshold estimator for wavelets coefficients", 2nd International Conference on Wavelet Analysis and Its Applications, Berlin: The demand for silent machine operation in any of the organization is prime need in today's environmentally conscious world.

The legal aspects of noise control requires a silent and noise free operation of the machine. The vibration and noise resulted due to it is the common phenomena in any dynamic machinery. In this paper an attempt has been made to found a suitable Viscoelastic material which can minimize the vibration and results into less noise and efficient operation.

Viscoelastic material, Vibration, FFT analyzer. Tillema, Thesis Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, pp. This paper investigates the effect of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM transmission mode on the performance of the cyclic prefix- CP based frequency synchronization technique. Five different OFDM transmission modes are developed and frequency synchronization is performed on each of them in turn.

The results show that synchronization performance improves with increase in the order of transmission mode IFFT size but with increase in CFO estimation time. Ippolito, Satellite communications systems engineering West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Ajayi, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM for future mobile multimedia communications, International Journal of Engineering, 5 4 , , The necessity in image compression continuously grows during the last decade.

A number of image compression techniques have been developed in the past different kind of application. In recent years, discrete time wavelet transform DWT is observed to be very efficient for image compression techniques. Mallat, "A theory for multi resolution signal decomposition: Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.

On Circuits and Systems for Video Tech. Power Quality is one of the primary concerns of the utilities, since lack of quality in power may cause malfunctions, instability, short lifetime and so on. The efficiency and sustainability of a power system is highly dependent on the maintenance of good quality of power supply. Conventional Methods have been used to analyze the transient effects but found to be high resource consuming under remote applications. In this aspect the Discrete Wavelet Transformation DWT analysis has gained reputation of being a very effective and efficient analysis tool.

VHDL is used to implement DWT architecture for improving the efficiency of estimation and response in the power systems. The evaluations are compared with theoretical results from MATLAB and were observed to be meeting the accuracy of estimation. Vetterli " Wavelets and signal processing. Kovacevic " Wavelets and Subband Coding". Multiplying floating point numbers is a critical requirement for DSP applications involving large dynamic range. The multiplier was verified against Xilinx floating point multiplier core.

It handles the overflow and underflow cases. Rounding is not implemented to give more precision when using the multiplier in a Multiply and Accumulate MAC unit.

The construction industry in recent years has incorporated information technology which serves to facilitate the conceptualization and realization of construction projects.

BIM has attracted widespread popularity recently; however, there is several challenges concerning its definitions and expectations in early phases of construction projects. Evidently different organizations and people create their own definitions of BIM, based on the specific way they work with BIM. Thus, it is evident that there are differences in the way BIM is perceived by both different individuals and organizations within the construction industry.

As a result, it might be difficult to come up with a common definition of BIM for the entire construction industry. This can lead to misunderstandings concerning expectations from different stakeholders involved in construction projects where BIM is utilized. It is suggested that the definition of BIM should not be unilateral but rather encompass several key characteristics which have been attributed to it. Joo, Building information modelling BIM framework for practical implementation, Automation in Construction 20 2 , , To design a high speed multiplier with reduced error compensation technique.

The fixed-width multiplier is attractive to many multimedia and digital signal processing systems which are desirable to maintain a fixed format and allow a little accuracy loss to output data.

This paper presents the Design of error compensated truncation circuit and its implementation in fixed width multiplier. To reduce the truncation error, we first slightly modify the partial product matrix of Booth multiplication and then derive an effective error compensation function that makes the error distribution be more symmetric to and centralized in the error equal to zero, leading the fixed-width modified Booth multiplier to very small mean and mean-square errors.

However, a huge truncation error will be introduced to this kind of fixed-width modified Booth multipliers. To overcome this problem, several error compensated truncation circuit approaches have been proposed to effectively reduce the truncation error of fixed-width modified Booth multipliers. Very Large Scale Integr. The operation of VSI is supported by a dc storage capacitor with proper dc voltage across it. Any change in the load affects the dc-link voltage directly.

The sudden removal of load would result in an increase in the dc-link voltage above the reference value, where as sudden increase in load would reduce the dc-link voltage below its reference value. Conventionally, a Proportional-Integral PI controller is used to maintain the dc-link voltage to the reference value.

It uses deviation of the capacitor voltage from its reference value as its input. However the transient response of the conventional PI dc-link controller is slow. To maintain the dc-link voltage at the reference value, the dc-link capacitor needs a certain amount of real power, which is proportional to the difference between the actual and reference voltages. To overcome the disadvantage of the conventional PI dc-link voltage controller, a fast-acting dc-link voltage controller is proposed.

To maintain the dc-link voltage of fast acting controller reference value is proportional to the difference between the squares of the actual and reference voltages.

Mathematical equations are given to compute the gains of the conventional controller based on fast-acting dc-link voltage controllers to achieve similar fast transient response. The value of the dc-link capacitor can be selected based on its ability to regulate the voltage under transient conditions.. The efficiency of the proposed controller over the conventional dc-link voltage controller has been developed in MATLAB environment, simulated and obtained related waveforms.

This methodology provides a numerical approach to observability analysis. The approach enables observability analysis and restoration pseudo-measurement selection in a simple way with iteration, via triangular factorization of the jacobian matrix of the weight least square state estimator.

An algorithm for precious measurement of topological observability in large bus — system state estimation has been proposed. The algorithm is based on observation that the search for a spanning tree of full rank. We use observability algorithm and state estimation algorithm. We use the Mat lab to obtain the various graphs of bus systems.

By using simulation method of bus system we analyze the observability. Power system state estimation, Observability analysis, Pseudo — measurement. Reference 1 Fred C. Schwepp and Wildes "Power static state estimation Part- 1: Davis "Power System Observability: Mukhedkar, "Power systems observability: Kusic "Computer aided power systems analysis" Prentice hall of india, 6 V. Quintana, A Simoes-costa and A. As health care centres have becomes popular, daily monitoring of health-status related parameters is becoming important.

An easy, comfortable and patient friendly solution for acquisition, processing and remotely transmitting the information from patient to the centre is therefore an important issue.

Phonocardiogram PCG is a physiological signal reflecting the cardiovascular status. This paper deals with a Signal Processing Module for the computer-aided analysis of the condition of heart. The module has three main blocks: Data acquired includes the heart sounds. The system integrates embedded internet technology and wireless technology.

As the data is being send by internet, it realizes real-time recording and monitoring of physiological parameter of patients at low cost and both at home and in hospital.

The analysis can be carried out using computer initially and further by doctor. The tele-monitoring system may provide a low-cost, reliable and convenient solution for data acquisition and real time analysis of the PCG. The heart sounds are acquired using an acoustic stethoscope and then processed using software developed using the simulation tool Python 2.

Abrams, Current concepts of the genesis of heart sounds. First and second sounds, Jama, vol. Khan, Third heart sound: The heart arteries and veins, 7th ed. Hard turning is a machining process defined of hardness higher than 45 HRC under appropriate cutting tools and cutting speed. The objective of this paper is to investigate the optimum process parameters for a particular work piece-tool material combination.

In this study, three levels of each parameters viz. AISI H 11 was taken as work piece material. The experiment is designed using Taguchi Method. The final results of experimental investigation are presented in this paper.

The conclusions arrived at are critically discussed at the end.. Turning versus grinding—a comparison of surface integrity aspects and attainable accuracies. Ann CIRP ;42 1: Cutting of hardened steel. Ann CIRP ;49 2: Tool wear and surface integrity in hard turning. Prod Eng ;3 1: Hard turning—Influence on the workpiece properties.

Identification of cutting errors in precision hard turning process. J Mater Process Tech ;— Rech J, Moisan A. Surface Integrity in finish hard turning of case hardened steels.

Int J Mach Tool Manuf ; Technology key to mold making success. Manuf Eng ; 4: High-speed milling of dies and molds in their hardened state.

Ann CIRP ;46 1: Ann CIRP ;52 2: Capability profile of hard cutting and grinding processes. Ann CIRP ;54 2: Morphology is a part of linguistic that deals with study of words, i. A morphological analyzer is a program for analyzing morphology for an input word, it detects morphemes of any text.

In current technique, only provides dictionary which defines the meaning of the word, but does not give the grammatical explanation regarding that word. In propose system, we evaluate the morphological analyzer for Marathi, an inflectional language and even a parsed tree i. We plug the morphological analyzer with statistical pos tagger and chunker to see its impact on their performance so as to confirm its usability as a foundation for NLP applications.

A case of implementing the open source platformApertium". Pearson Education, Singapur, second edition, Akshar Bharati and V. Electrocardiogram ECG is a noninvasive technique used as a primary diagnostic tool for detecting cardiovascular diseases. One of the important cardiovascular diseases is cardiac arrhythmia. Computer-assisted cardiac arrhythmia detection and classification can play a significant role in the management of cardiac disorders.

This paper presents an algorithm developed using Python 2. The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization.

Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances.

In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Worring, "Time interval maximum entropy based event indexing in soccer video," in Proc. Multimedia and Expo, Jul. Freisleben, "Text detection in images based on unsupervised classification of highfrequency wavelet coefficients," in Proc. Zhang, "Efficient video text recognition using multiple frame integration," in Proc. Circuit and Systems for Video Technology, vol. Samarabandu, "Multiscale edge-based text extraction from complex images," in Proc. Wang, "Automatic text detection in complex color image," in Proc.

Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Nov. Tan, "Effective video text detection using line features," in Proc. Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Dec.

Maenpaa, "Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns," IEEE Trans. Kasturi, "Robust extraction of text in video," in Proc. The dynamic analysis is carried out by the finite element method simulation thereby predicting failure modes of the vehicle frame under vibration analysis. This work investigates the vibration characteristics of the frame including the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite element method, dynamic analysis, failure modes, mode shapes.

In image processing, various biometric applications, name identification from facial images plays an important role, Weber's Local Descriptor WLD will be used for face recognition for name identification. WLD is a texture descriptor that performs better than other similar descriptors but it is holistic due to its very construction.

We divide an image into a number of blocks, calculate WLD descriptor for each block and concatenate them. This spatial WLD descriptor has better discriminatory power. It is used to represent the image in terms of differential excitations and gradient orientation histogram for texture analysis. WLD is based on Weber's law and it is robust to illumination change, noise and other distortions. So it effectively analyzes the face features to accurate matching and name identification.

The feature extraction approach will be used for both test and database images to recognize for name identification. The face will be recognized by finding Euclidean distance between them. The proposed spatial WLD descriptor with simplest classifier gives much better accuracy with lesser algorithmic complexity than face recognition approaches.

Normalization, Orientation, Differential excitation, Euclidean Distance. Cheng, "Robust movie character identification and the sensitivity analysis," in Proc.

Association of face and name in video," in Proc. Forsyth, "Names and faces in the news," in Proc. Hauptmann, "Multiple instance learning for labeling faces in broadcasting news video," in Proc. Zisserman, "Identifying individuals in video by combining "generative" and discriminative head models," in Proc.

Cipolla, "Automatic cast listing in feature length films with anisotropic manifold space," in Proc. Taskar, "Learning from ambiguously labeled images," in Proc. Stiefelhagen, "Video-based face recognition on real-world data," in Proc. The heterogeneity in peer to peer P2P networks can be its advantage as well as disadvantage. The heterogeneity may be about amount of storage, computing power, connectivity etc. But P2P systems make it possible to harness resources such as the storage, bandwidth and computing power of large populations of networked computers in a cost effective manner.

There are many approaches to balance these systems in a costeffective way. Both approaches are having its own advantages and shortcomings. Systems and Humans, Vol.

Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. In this paper, a common fixed point theorem for six self mappings has been established using the concept of semicompatibility and weak compatibility in Fuzzy metric space, which generalizes the result of Singh B. Fuzzy metric space, common fixed point, t-norm, compatible map, semi-compatible, weak compatible map. Veeramani, On some results in Fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy sets and systems, 64 , Grebiec, Fixed points in Fuzzy metric space, Fuzzy sets and systems, 27 , Michalek, Fuzzy metric and statistical metric spaces, Kybernetika 11 , Sharma, Common Fixed point theorems in Fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy sets and systems, , Masoodi, Semicompatibility, weak compatibility and fixed point theorem in Fuzzy metric space, International Mathematical Forum, 5, , no.

Jain, Semi-compatibility, compatibility and fixed point theorems in Fuzzy metric space, Journal of Chungecheong Math. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, Inform and Control, 8 , Steganographyis the art or technique of hiding messages in such a way that no one except the sender and the intended recipient suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity.

We use this concept wherein text is hidden behind the image and the intended recipient is able to view it. The purpose of the system is covert communication to hide a message from a third party. In this paper, a technique called digital signature is also included which is added to all the documents sent by the sender to increase the reliability and authenticity of the document.

Thus, the proposed system would help to hide the existence of confidential data and would increase the difficulty of detecting the hidden embedded data. We are also including facial recognition which automatically identifies the person by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. Hence when an image is sent with data encrypted in it, the recipient's facial features will be compared with the one in the central database.

In this way the receiver is authenticated using facial recognition tool. Thus this paper gives a brief idea about image steganography that makes use of Least Significant Bit LSB algorithm for hiding the data into an image which is implemented through the Microsoft.

This system will prove to be helpful in areas where security of data is of utmost importance. It will also be very easy to share and send data to a recipient via a single image file. Reference [1] "Introduction to computer security" -Bishop, M. Subramanya and Byung K.

Design of new security using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography algorithms- World Journal of Science and Technology Face recognition withEigen faces. Acute hypotensive episode AHE is a serious clinical event, which can lead to irreversible organ damage and sometimes death. When detected in time, an appropriate intervention can significantly lower the risks for the patient.

The algorithm consists of probability distributions of MAP and information divergence methods for calculating the statistical distance between two probability distributions. The Bhattacharyya Distance is found out to be most accurate method for calculating such statistical distance. The comparison is also carried out for feasibility of Bhattacharyya distance with another divergence method like KL ivergence. Computers in Cardiology ; On information and sufficiency. Ann Math Statics ; The elements of statistical learning.

Springer, [6] Bellman R. Theory and Methods, A6, , pp. The nature of statistical learning Theory. Sringer-Verlag, [8] Bellman R. Princeton University Press, The ultraviolet UV region of electromagnetic radiation from sun occupies a section of wavelengths ranging from to 10 nm. It is highly ionizing and activates many chemical processes on different types of materials and living beings.

The amount of UV radiation at different places on the earth depends on the position of the sun during the day and the season of the year.

A decline in the amount of total ozone content TOC at a particular time also leads to an increase in UV radiation at that time.

The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Ghude, Exposureplant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region, Atmos. Diffey , Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, ed. Bosnajakovic, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 83—87, Tropospheric Emission MonitoringInternet Service. Our goal is to detect when the distributor's sensitive data have been leaked by agents, and if possible to identify the agent that leaked the data.

In this project, we are giving the methodology for adding fake object into data. Fake object will be added through stegnography concept. Stegnnography is an ancient technique of data hiding or the stegnography is the art and science of hiding the existence of information, we contrast it with the related disciplines of cryptography And traffic security.

Many techniques are used to hide data in various formats in steganography. The most widely used mechanism on account of its simplicity is the use of the Least Significant Bit. Least Significant Bit or its variants are normally used to hide data in a digital image. This paper discusses technique to hide data in a colorful image using least significant bit. How to Send a Secret Message. Steganography - The Art of Hiding Data. Information technology Journal 3 3 - [9] Sellars, D.

An Analytical Approach Abstract: The pulse density modulation technique has been used in resonant power converters because its ability to maintains soft-switching for any level of output power. The sub harmonics of the switching frequency are in general undesired and are seen as a drawback. In this work are developed analytical equations to express the harmonics and sub harmonics components of a PDM signal.

It is still analyzed the PDM parameters variation and their effects in the frequency spectra. Cardesin, "Analysis, design, and experimentation of a high-voltage power supply for ozone generation based on current-fed parallel-resonant push-pull inverter", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.

Lipo, Pulse width modulation for power converters: Principles and practice, Wiley Inter-Science, The paper deals with error detection method for difference set cyclic codes with majority logic decoding. These are suitable for memory applications due to their capability to correct large number of errors. For a sealant, I love jojoba oil. It would be nice to know how much each product cost. Pantene is the best product line for the best price. Thanks for this list! However just want to let you know I purchase my giovanni products from good ol' walmart!

A year late for me, but I will definitely share with transitioning folk. I too love the Giovanni Direct Leave in. As a majority 4b with some 4a I have seen a definite change in my hair's moisture retention.

I am also hooked on the Smooth as Silk shampoo and conditioner. Thanks for the list! Helps out a lot for new naturals like myself. You've activated my PJ once again!! Hey Nikki, I've been noticing people saying they don't support Trader Joes products. Do you know whats up with that? I seem to be having a hard time figuring out how to manage my 2 textures..

What to do what to do.. This list is great! I was on the verge of becoming a product junkie with many of my products being "ok" products. Where can you purchase Trader Joe's?

I've never really heard of it. Hello Nikki, I just started transitioning on Oct 1 Thank you for the list. Very, very, very good. All the best to you. Hi Nikki, I noticed you shared you use honeychild olive you dt conditioner. I use it as well and love it! I'm not sure if it could be as harmful as using perhaps glycerin during the colder months, please help!

Thanks so much, zainab1 AuNaturale I am going to try the water-based moisturizer and coconut oil sealant tomorrow after washing my hair after my workout. I have been natural sine like but need to take better care in the moisture department!! Does anyone still use Cholesterol??? If so does anyone do what Nikki says and add honey and oil? Just wondering because I have some and was going to try that too.

Nikki, Oh ok cool. I am excited to get my hair back to a healthy state! Do you apply it throughout the hair or just the ends? DHD H20 shampoo and Moisture conditioner. When using the shampoo, it often feels like the hair is being conditioned! So by the time you use the conditioner, you hair will have such wonderful "slip". Joico Moisture Recovery Shampoo and Conditioner - My staple shampoo and conditioner for all of my shampoo days Lisa Akbari Cleansing shampoo - Use whenever I need to clarify Sebastian Penetrait Protein Treatment - Use whenever I need a stronger protein treatment for leave-out hair Hydratherma Naturals Amino Protein Treatment - Use on leave-out hair or braids underneath weave whenever I need mild protein; AWESOME slip Hydratherma Naturals Follicle Invigorator - spray on scalp about twice per week to stimulate hair follicles for growth Joico Kpak Smoothing Balm - use on leave-out hair before blow-drying and pressing-comb; it's a heat-protectant Nadia shescentit.

Thank you so much for this site!!! I'm addicted to it! I've been transitioning for about a 1 year and a 5 months now and I couldn't figure out why my hair was so dry, but this site gave me all the tools I need to have healthy hair. I'm six months in as a long transitioner.

I purchased Yes to Cucumbers and love the way it makes my hair feel. I also love the smell. Thank you so much. I have 3 daughters and I am trying to make sure their hair is as healthy as possible and trying to stay away from sulfates and parabens and all the bad stuff!!! I just purchased pantene pro-v for relaxed and natural hair as well. Does anyone know anything about this product? I'm 6 months into my transition. I really needed to set a new regimen so I printed your post and took it with me shopping.

Thanks for taking the time to put this together. Just wanted you to know that your list is still helping people. I've been natural for years, at least 6, maybe even more.

I started with the big chop, and never regretted it. I wear my hair straight and in the summer I sport my natural curl. After figuring out the right products that give me the style I like, it's a breeze. She has a line of products and she's doing workshops that help the scissor shy clients how to maintain their happy, healthy hair. I am allergic to all the detangling conditioners you put on here. I need a detangling conditioner that is hypoallergenic!

Nikki, I wanna know after you chop your hair what do you put on it. I have very little hair ,I wash it put some Shea butter on it. So can you help a sister. What does pommade do for styling the hair? Or rather, how do you use it? I'll also check youtube. This summer my roommate who has fine and straight hair was complaining about how dry and brittle her hair had become. I wanted to ask her "You flat iron multiple times a day and are recovering from your blonde phase, what did you expect?!

The next day she came to me as if I was a guru and said " I had been using Say Yes to Cucumbers conditioner until I noticed that it had Sodium Hydroxide in the ingredients list. I know that's lye and so I didn't want to keep using it; especially as a leave in. Even in small quantities, there's no good reason I can see for putting this on natural hair. Sorry guys, but I'm done with this one.

I just discovered the best shampoo for natural hair I've come across in ages. I tried it on a lark and OMG the softness I got was incredible. I only use it once a month to remove any buildup since I co wash weekly but I'm hooked on this. Perhaps you can find it in your local BSS and give it a try.

I'm pretty sure you'll add it to your list once you do! And many thanks for all the great tips - love your site! I have been transitioning for going on five months now and have definitely found your website helpful, especially since I'd almost given up.

Thank you for taking your precious time to create such an informative website. I do a daily Well I'm so glad that I found it because this is very vital information. I love love love it!!

Thank you soooo very much Nikki for this, I'm on my way to the store now! Aussie moist is good and I love love extra virgin olive oil! It's so good on natural hair seriously! This is an excellent and informative post! I absolutely love Jane Carter's Nourish and Shine!

Very hydrating and gives you a nice sheen! This is just what I needed! It was incredibly helpful to me as I start my natural hair journey. Thank you so much! I'm heading to the store after work lemme bookmark this page!

I need some advice, I have a very fine grade of hair prone to humidity of any kind. What can I use to made my two-strand twist stay in, they untwist even when I wrap my hair. I am a older women that want to know if henna will help my hair to grow like the younger women hair? Would like to try,but dont want to put money or time in the henna if their is something better. Going form perm to natural hair can somone help.

Best twist out of my life. Did it Wednesday night and its Sunday still going strong. I just pull my hair into a very loose ponytail at night and put my satin cap on top. You just have to add a light moisturizer every couple days to keep it shining! I have just been so lost! Please tell me what do you think about using a hair dryer to dry the hair especialy when using rods to set your natural hair.

I use a hair dryer minimal heat every week before twisting my hair. I use a little Jamaican Castor Oil when hair is dried, Results: Awesome when I twist out. So Nothing bad with hair dryer if you are taking good care of your hair.

My hair is very healthy.: I read your article in Essence about what to use in your hair to help fight "Humidity". You listed what to look for in the ingredients CN, thanks so much for the information.

Do you still use the same products in , or have you founds some new ones to add to the list. Again thanks for the information I would like to know have you changed anything products since CN, did you detangle your hair with a brush or comb when your first started using henna back in 07 or so. So far I like Shea Moisture. I have this list up on my phone whenever I go to pick up some new products! Have you tried Kinky Curly Knot Today? That's a great leave-in for twist outs!

I'll take wiot into consideration. Right now i use the following: Suave Naturals Shampoos mostly Coconut , Suave Naturals rosemary and mint conditioner awesome product , Garnier Fructis sleek and shine leave in conditioning cream, Naptural85's shea butter mix, and just recently bought some Hollywood Beauty Castor Oil hair grease a little gives a lot of shine and it smells great. I try to do protein treatments once a month with some eggs, mayo, honey, evo and coconut oil naptural85 along with ACV rinse.

I really needed this and will be taking a trip to target soon. Has anyone used Everyday Shea Moisturizing Conditioner? I am seeking a great conditioner that comes in more than an 8oz bottle that my hair swallows up in one use.

I found this conditioner in a 32oz bottle and it has a very thick appear. I just hope that it works well. The views expressed on curlynikki. Brittany Smarr Created by: September 27, at 8: September 27, at 9: