Boy shares foul ball with another young fan at Detroit Tigers game. The Nutrisystem Core plan for Canada includes all of the same features that the Basic Plan includes, but you have more food options to choose from. Religious pluralism existed in classical Islamic ethics and Sharia , as the religious laws and courts of other religions, including Christianity, Judaism and Hinduism , were usually accommodated within the Islamic legal framework, as seen in the early Caliphate , Al-Andalus , Indian subcontinent , and the Ottoman Millet system. I felt like people were staring as I left the store. Mary Dyer of Rhode Island: I would love to order the program and the discount would really help!
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Our favorite for value and efficacy is Weight Watchers , designed to help you change your eating habits for good. Nutrisystem is the least expensive meal delivery plan we reviewed Medifast is cheaper, but you have to provide one meal a day on your own. And the silver-spoon award undoubtedly goes to In The Zone Delivery , a white-glove service for people who'll spare no expense to drop the pounds.
Here's how the plans stack up. See the handy chart at the bottom of the page for a side-by-side comparison. The oldest national weight-loss program, its members rave about the encouragement they get at weekly meetings led by former Weight Watchers dieters.
Nutritionists praise the portion-control points system: Each food is assigned points based on its serving size, calories, fiber, and fat; and no foods are forbidden.
Your point allowance is based on your weight, height, gender, age, and activity level. A recent clinical study in the New England Journal of Medicine linked group counseling sessions to weight-loss success. That explains why Weight Watchers has impressive short-term results.
A study in the Annals of Internal Medicine showed participants lost an average of about 5 percent of their body weight 10 pounds in six months. Two years later, they had kept about half the weight off. To help members stay on track, Weight Watchers encourages them to attend meetings until they've stayed within 2 pounds of their goal weight for six weeks.
After that, you get free lifetime membership. The company says members using its online tools in addition to attending meetings lost 50 percent more weight than those going to meetings alone. Cost to lose 20 pounds: We looked at two plans from eDiets - one that offers support alone, and another with meal delivery. You can choose from among more than 20 diet plans, including ones for diabetics and vegetarians.
Online tools let you set goals, plan menus and generate shopping lists. There's no face-to-face support, but you get support through online message boards and a mentor program that connects newbies with an experienced member.
Also, you can reach a registered dietitian or personal trainer by phone at any time. The optional meal delivery service offers freshly prepared, calorie-controlled meals delivered by FedEx. But telephone support has some evidence in its favor: Yes, it's a bargain for round-the-clock support. For about the same money, other services offer better track records.
For the first two weeks, you eat three extremely low-carb meals a day plus mandatory snacks. After that, you gradually add "good carbs," such as fruits and whole grains. You can customize menus, search a database of more than 1, recipes and get a personalized shopping list. There's online support from staff dieticians and members plus daily motivational emails.
Studies have shown that after one year, carb-restricted diets led to greater weight loss and increased heart health than low-fat diets. However, the advantage disappeared over the long term. How much can you expect to lose? Figure on 8 to 13 pounds during the two- week kick-start phase, then 1 to 2 pounds a week thereafter. It doesn't cost much, but you don't get as much support as with Weight Watchers or eDiets.
The Zone diet is mostly meat, fruits, and vegetables. You eat three meals per day plus two Zone protein-powder snacks. A study of people in the Journal of American Medical Association found the Zone diet helped people achieve modest weight loss after one year, comparable with those on the Atkins , Weight Watchers and Ornish diets, and improved cardiac risk factors.
Premium-priced Jenny Craig lets you order its heart-healthy, nutritionally balanced packaged food by phone and pick it up at a Jenny Craig center or have it delivered through Jenny Direct. You eat three Jenny Craig meals plus a snack per day, and supplement with fruit, vegetables and dairy. Once a week, you get a weigh-in and pep talk with a consultant - who is not a dietician and who earns commissions from selling you products.
There's also round-the-clock phone support. Jenny Craig has a good track record for short-term weight loss up to one year. In a UC San Diego clinical trial of dieters funded by Jenny Craig , Jenny Craig clients lost 11 percent of their initial weight after 12 months, compared with 3 percent weight loss by those who were dieting on their own. The "doctor-designed" Bistro M. The price is a cut above the competition, too. The plan tries to help you avoid a weight-loss stall out by varying the daily calorie intake between 1, and 1, By eating a little more some days and a little less on others, you'll supposedly prevent your body from becoming used to the same number of calories every day.
While no university studies support the theory that varying caloric intake aids weight loss, the high quality of the food and the relatively large portion sizes have been praised by Health magazine, Dr. Phil and The New York Times. Some plan users have complained of a lack of choices and menu flexibility compared to other plans, but a company spokesman says they offer more than entrees and can make substitutions to accommodate allergies and food preferences.
It's a reasonable price for well-made food with slightly faster average weight loss than with Jenny Craig. This meal-delivery service, endorsed by Marie Osmond and Dan Marino, emphasizes foods with a low glycemic index. The underlying premise is that controlling blood sugar levels leads to weight loss. The heat-and-eat prepared meals and snacks contain roughly 55 percent "good" carbs, 25 percent protein, and 20 percent fats; like Jenny Craig, you add fruits, vegetables and dairy.
Support is available through phone counseling and online chat rooms. There's plenty of research showing that following a diet of 1, to 1, calories a day, such as Nutrisystem, can cause weight loss. For example, a study by the Obesity Research Center at St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital in New York found that postmenopausal women who followed a 1,calorie plan for 16 weeks lost an average of 21 pounds.
For a meal-delivery diet system, Nutrisystem is more economical than Jenny Craig. Although today's program is not as stringent as the original liquid fast Medifast launched decades ago, the low-fat, relatively low-carb plan is designed to bring about rapid weight loss by coaxing your body into a "fat-burning state" known as ketosis.
The 70 meal replacement choices include shakes, bars, soups, pudding, oatmeal, chili, pretzel sticks, cheese puffs, and scrambled eggs. If you can stick with it, a diet of 1, calories a day can certainly induce rapid weight loss. A common concern with such low-calorie diets is that you'll quickly regain the weight, but in a small clinical trial recently published in the journal Experimental Biology , after 10 months, only about one in five people regained all the weight they had lost.
Even other Muslim-majority countries are secular and thus do not regulate religious belief. Thus, this supports the argument against the execution of apostates in Islam.
However, on the other hand, some Muslims support the practice of executing apostates who leave Islam, as in Bukhari: In Iran, the constitution recognizes four religions whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Among the most contentious areas of religious freedom is the right of an individual to change or abandon his or her own religion apostasy , and the right to evangelize individuals seeking to convince others to make such a change. Other debates have centered around restricting certain kinds of missionary activity by religions.
Many Islamic states, and others such as China, severely restrict missionary activities of other religions. Greece, among European countries, has generally looked unfavorably on missionary activities of denominations others than the majority church and proselytizing is constitutionally prohibited. A different kind of critique of the freedom to propagate religion has come from non-Abrahamic traditions such as the African and Indian.
African scholar Makau Mutua criticizes religious evangelism on the ground of cultural annihilation by what he calls "proselytizing universalist faiths" Chapter Proselytism and Cultural Integrity, p. Some Indian scholars  have similarly argued that the right to propagate religion is not culturally or religiously neutral. In Sri Lanka, there have been debates regarding a bill on religious freedom that seeks to protect indigenous religious traditions from certain kinds of missionary activities.
Debates have also occurred in various states of India regarding similar laws, particularly those that restrict conversions using force, fraud or allurement. In , Christian Solidarity Worldwide , a Christian human rights non-governmental organisation which specializes in religious freedom, launched an in-depth report on the human rights abuses faced by individuals who leave Islam for another religion. The report is the product of a year long research project in six different countries.
It calls on Muslim nations, the international community, the UN and the international media to resolutely address the serious violations of human rights suffered by apostates. In Islam, apostasy is called " ridda " "turning back" and is considered to be a profound insult to God.
A person born of Muslim parents that rejects Islam is called a " murtad fitri " natural apostate , and a person that converted to Islam and later rejects the religion is called a " murtad milli " apostate from the community. In Islamic law Sharia , the consensus view is that a male apostate must be put to death unless he suffers from a mental disorder or converted under duress, for example, due to an imminent danger of being killed.
A female apostate must be either executed, according to Shafi'i , Maliki , and Hanbali schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence fiqh , or imprisoned until she reverts to Islam as advocated by the Sunni Hanafi school and by Shi'a scholars.
Ideally, the one performing the execution of an apostate must be an imam. However, while almost all scholars agree about the punishment, many disagree on the allowable time to retract the apostasy. Rahman, a former Chief Justice of Pakistan, argues that there is no indication of the death penalty for apostasy in the Qur'an.
Religious practice may also conflict with secular law, creating debates on religious freedom. For instance, even though polygamy is permitted in Islam, it is prohibited in secular law in many countries. This raises the question of whether prohibiting the practice infringes on the beliefs of certain Muslims.
The US and India, both constitutionally secular nations, have taken two different views of this. In the US, polygamy is prohibited for all.
This was a major source of conflict between the early LDS Church and the United States until the Church amended its position on practicing polygamy. Similar issues have also arisen in the context of the religious use of psychedelic substances by Native American tribes in the United States as well as other Native practices.
Traynor neatly summarized the American position on how freedom of religion cannot imply freedom from law: City of Hialeah in upheld the right of Santeria adherents to practice ritual animal sacrifice , with Justice Anthony Kennedy stating in the decision: Hodges legalizing Same-sex marriage in the United States.
When she refused to issue marriage licenses, she became embroiled in the Miller v. Her actions caused attorney and author Roberta Kaplan to state that "Kim Davis is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate.
In , the case of Engele v. Vitale went to court over the violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment resulting from a mandatory nondenominational prayer in New York public schools.
The Supreme Court ruled in opposition to the state. Edward Schempp sued the school district in Abington over the Pennsylvania law which required students to hear and sometimes read portions of the bible for their daily education.
The court ruled in favor of Schempp and the Pennsylvania law was overturned. In , the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Epperson v. Susan Epperson, a high school teacher in Arkansas sued over a violation of religious freedom.
The state had a law banning the teaching of evolution and the school Epperson worked for had provided curriculum which contained evolutionary theory. Epperson had to choose between violating the law or losing her job.
The Supreme Court ruled to overturn the Arkansas law because it was unconstitutional. The law in Germany provides the term of "religious majority" Religiöse Mündigkeit with a minimum age for minors to follow their own religious beliefs even if their parents don't share those or don't approve. Children 14 and older have the unrestricted right to enter or exit any religious community.
Children 12 and older cannot be compelled to change to a different belief. Children 10 and older have to be heard before their parents change their religious upbringing to a different belief. In its annual report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom designated fourteen nations as "countries of particular concern". The commission chairman commented that these are nations whose conduct marks them as the world's worst religious freedom violators and human rights abusers.
There are concerns about the restrictions on public religious dress in some European countries including the Hijab , Kippah , and Christian cross.
The Pew Research Center has performed studies on international religious freedom between and , compiling global data from 16 governmental and non-governmental organizations—including the United Nations, the United States State Department , and Human Rights Watch —and representing over Social hostilities were classified by the level of communal violence and religion-related terrorism.
While most countries provided for the protection of religious freedom in their constitutions or laws, only a quarter of those countries were found to fully respect these legal rights in practice. In 75 countries governments limit the efforts of religious groups to proselytise and in countries religious groups must register with the government. The countries in North and South America reportedly had some of the lowest levels of government and social restrictions on religion, while The Middle East and North Africa were the regions with the highest.
Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Iran were the countries that top the list of countries with the overall highest levels of restriction on religion. Vietnam and China were classified as having high government restrictions on religion but were in the moderate or low range when it came to social hostilities.
Nigeria, Bangladesh and India were high in social hostilities but moderate in terms of government actions. Restrictions on religion across the world increased between mid and mid, according to a study by the Pew Research Center.
Restrictions in each of the five major regions of the world increased—including in the Americas and sub-Saharan Africa, the two regions where overall restrictions previously had been declining. In , Egypt, Nigeria, the Palestinian territories, Russia, and Yemen were added to the "very high" category of social hostilities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the painting, see Freedom to Worship painting. For exemptions to anti-discrimination policy often known as "religious liberty" or "conscience protection", see Religious freedom bill.
Religious discrimination Separation of church and state. This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Freedom of religion in India. King John Sigismund . Freedom of religion in the United States. Freedom of religion in Canada. Apostasy in Islam , Takfir , and Mutaween.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Human rights portal Religion portal. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 3 September Ray Clendenen 15 October Fulani Hegemony in Yola Old Adamawa Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press , , p. The only privilege that was reserved for the Muslims was the seat of the caliphate, and this, because of certain religious functions attached to it, which could not naturally be discharged by a non-Muslim.
The Qur'an and Other Religions , p. Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. According the dhimma status system, non-Muslims must pay a poll tax in return for Muslim protection and the privilege of living in Muslim territory. Per this system, non-Muslims are exempt from military service, but they are excluded from occupying high positions that involve dealing with high state interests, like being the president or prime minister of the country.
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What is considered a human right is controversial and not all the topics listed are universally accepted as human rights. Cannabis rights Equality before the law Freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention Freedom of assembly Freedom of association Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment Freedom from discrimination Freedom from exile Freedom of information Freedom of movement Freedom of religion Freedom from slavery Freedom of speech Freedom of thought Freedom from torture Legal aid Liberty LGBT rights Nationality Personhood Presumption of innocence Right of asylum Right to die Right to a fair trial Right to family life Right to keep and bear arms Right to life Right to petition Right to privacy Right to protest Right to refuse medical treatment Right of self-defense Security of person Universal suffrage.
Economic, social and cultural. Digital rights Equal pay for equal work Fair remuneration Labor rights Right to an adequate standard of living Right to clothing Right to development Right to education Right to food Right to health Right to housing Right to Internet access Right to property Right to public participation Right of reply Right of return Right to science and culture Right to social security Right to water Right to work Trade union membership.
Civilian Combatant Freedom from genocide Prisoner of war Wartime sexual violence. Major religious groups and religious denominations. Christian left Christian right. Separation of church and state " Render unto Caesar " Two kingdoms doctrine Freedom of religion.