Anabolic steroid

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Thanks Pat — appreciate the nice feedback. I know my readers would appreciate your work. Hi Peggy — I think you should be fine using your own protein shake. Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted to inactive metabolites, and only about one-sixth is available in active form. Archived from the original on February 6, The drug response was highly variable.


The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug. Studies indicate that the anabolic properties of AAS are relatively similar despite the differences in pharmacokinetic principles such as first-pass metabolism. However, the orally available forms of AAS may cause liver damage in high doses. Known possible side effects of AAS include: Depending on the length of drug abuse, there is a chance that the immune system can be damaged.

Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension. AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS. For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth.

Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development.

AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.

AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes.

Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys.

The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage.

A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS".

Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.

Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e.

As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use.

From the mids onward, the media reported "roid rage" as a side effect of AAS. A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.

The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures. A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.

The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users, [] but little systematic evidence. A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data.

Androgens such as testosterone , androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone are required for the development of organs in the male reproductive system , including the seminal vesicles , epididymis , vas deferens , penis and prostate.

The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes [] or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell.

The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles. As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells.

Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength.

The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.

Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e.

This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest.

Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements.

The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out. The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use.

Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays. The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete.

An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR. Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS.

Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well. The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose.

The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways. The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration.

A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist. Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation.

Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.

The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.

The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters. In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly. The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters.

Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i. Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself.

The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison.

Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids. AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The history of the U.

The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone. By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U. In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.

Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person. Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark, [] France, [] the Netherlands [] and Sweden.

United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers. It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry.

The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids.

AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.

As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents. In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of A year later, the DEA seized In the first three months of , Australian customs reported a record seizures of AAS shipments.

Illegal AAS are sometimes sold at gyms and competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. AAS, alone and in combination with progestogens , have been studied as potential male hormonal contraceptives.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about androgens as medications. For androgens as natural hormones, see Androgen. Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Illegal trade in anabolic steroids. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. British Journal of Pharmacology. Houglum J, Harrelson GL, eds. Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers 2nd ed.

Int J Sports Med. Mini Rev Med Chem. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases". Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training. Clinical Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment. Royal College of Physicians. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed.

Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 21 June A systematic review and meta-analysis". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy.

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. With every fad that has come and gone in recent years, though, one plan has stood the test of time, and keeps helping people reach their weight loss goals year after year:. That plan is Nutrisystem and their proven weight loss system has helped thousands of people lose weight and get their health back on track, including me. I recently decided I needed to sign up again after packing on an extra 10 pounds around the holidays. There are many reasons that I love Nutrisystem, but these are the biggest factors that make it my top-rated weight loss program: As of today, Nutrisystem is offering some amazing discounts for TheDietDynamo.

Compare that to your average grocery bill these days, and that seems like a pretty good deal to me. You do need to buy some fresh vegetables on fruit when using the Nutrisystem diet, but even with that, the plan still is still an affordable way to reach your weight loss goals when you compare it your typical food costs. Plus, they show you the exact system to follow to reach your weight loss goals — follow the plan they send, and you will lose weight.

At the start of the year, Nutrisystem launched their brand new Turbo 13 program. This is designed to help you jump-start your weight loss, and includes a selection of foods and shakes for your first week. This last time I signed up, I had a weight loss goal of 10 pounds — with this new system I had pretty much hit my goal during the first week. This means, I only needed to use Nutrisystem for 1 month, and then switched to their Turbo Shakes for my second month, along with a healthy diet and exercise plan.

This may sound obvious, but I know a lot of folks are probably wondering if Nutrisystem actually works. The answer is YES — if you follow the program as they designed it.

That means, sticking to their meal plan for however long it takes to reach your weight loss goals. Maintaining a healthy weight took on new importance after starting a family. When I finally decided to sign on with Nutrisystem , my health was not in good shape. The crazy thing is the weight gain really snuck up on me. But, that all changed once I hit my mids. As my friends began settling down and starting families, I continued the partying and overindulgence of my college days, and as my metabolism slowed I really began to pack on the pounds.

The big wake-up call came when I finally decided to visit my primary care doctor. The results of the visit came as a shock, to say the least. It was the middle of winter, and I was laying on the couch late one night when a Nutrisystem commercial came on TV. Dan Marino , the legendary Miami Dolphins Quarterback, was talking about how he had lost more than 20 pounds on Nutrisystem, and for some reason, his words stuck with me see the commercial below.

Marino was one of the biggest names in the NFL as a kid, and here he was on TV talking about a diet plan that had worked for him, and he actually seemed genuine and believable. Whatever the reason, I was convinced it was what I needed. During my research, I found a lot of positive reviews about Nutrisystem, and I knew it was time to give it a try! My family and I.

I was able to lose 30 pounds with Nutrisystem, and have been able to keep it off by making simple lifestyle changes. It was affordable, convenient, tons of people reported great results online, and they guaranteed the weight loss. After doing a little research, I decided it was right for me and decided to sign up. I was probably around pounds when I finally decided to jump on the bandwagon, and my weight was going nowhere but up at that point.

Nowadays, I try to stay as close to as possible, and I am usually able to maintain that goal, give or take a pound or two. That being said, I still utilize diets like Nutrisystem from time-to-time, when I feel like I need a re-charge, or to quickly burn off some extra weight.

After reaching my goal, I transitioned to a plan that includes their Turbo Shakes, healthy foods that I prepare on my own, and a regular exercise routine. While their Basic plan worked for me for me, they have several options to choose from. The big takeaway here: Pick a plan that fits your budget and dietary needs they have specialty plans for vegetarians and diabetics , and know that ALL of their plans are going to help you lose weight when used correctly. There is a ton of variety, the meals are quick and easy to make, and they even have frozen options that take the quality up another notch.

You can view their full menu at the official Nutrisystem website. Ultimately, I wanted to make a goal of losing about 10 pounds per month. For me, this was very doable following their diet plan. The results are going to be different for everyone, but if you have 20, 30 lbs, or more to lose, then I would expect to be on the diet for at least two months. In my case, once I reached my weight loss goal, I had established a routine for how much I needed to eat each day, so I was comfortable developing a plan of my own.

As someone who has lost more than 30 pounds using the Nutrisystem program, I can tell you that it absolutely works. I highly recommend it to anyone who has 10 or pounds to lose. Nutrisystem Turbo 13 is one of the most effective ways to lose weight, and is a great fit for anyone who wants an easy plan to follow. I've used their plan now several times over the years, and it's one of our highest rated weight loss products here on the site.

I really liked your story. I am in day 2 of my Turbo Program. My history with NS is in I had my 3rd child, 12 months and one day after my 2nd. My weight on delivery date was My normal weight was I went down to Lowest in my life, and I felt good. I did feel healthier at which I managed to maintain for 20 something years. In 3 years I graduated a size I weighed when I graduated. I still weigh 10 years later and feel awful. I too started to eat out and drink wine.

I only hope I have the will power to succeed this time. I feel I have to become a hermit and say no to going out with my friends, neighbors and family.

But now I am older and I dread the fact it may take me years to lose all this fat. But I have only myself to blame. Reading your story has given me some inspiration.

I am going to make 10 weight loss increments only as to not get discouraged. Thank you for sharing your story. Hi Cheryl- Thanks for reading, and sharing…What an inspiring story!

I still have a drink occasionally, but try to keep it limited to social gatherings and not an everyday thing. In any case, best of luck with your weight loss journey! Norman, you seem to know the NS diet very well.

I have been on this diet around 7 years ago and I see a few new changes this time. My order has arrived and I unpacked my Turbo Box yet did not keep that food separate, and now i am really unsure of what was in it for my first week….

Best of luck with the program. Hope that helps -NS. You want to be at your goal weight then, not wishing you did something about it yrs ago. No, you cannot pound them back, but I am not sure why you would want to anyway.

Co-workers always ask me to go out for a drink and they order whatever and I order a diet coke. You could blame it on medication if you want. When I go out to eat or go to cookouts, etc. I order a meat and a vegetable with a diet soda. No potato or anything. At a cookout it would be a burger or chicken with no bread, and a tossed salad or veggie. You CAN do it. You just have to order carefully. I wish you luck. You can do, I know you can. It is so nice to read a positive article about Nutrisystem.

You are so right about your body becoming used to the smaller portions. Like anything, your body goes through an adjustment period, but after a few days, it is quite easy. With frequent snacks between meals, as well as plenty of fluids, you are eating pretty much whenever you feel hungry.

Hi, thanks for the great review! Thanks for the nice comment: Excited to hear how Nutrisystem goes for you — let us know! Hi Ellen — You definitely need to talk with your doctor before trying Nutrisystem or any weight loss plan with your health issues, but they do offer a plan for people with diabetes.

I would recommend checking out their site to learn more about the different plans they offer. They also offer snacks and shakes as options over the course of the day, so that helps with the extra cravings too. Hope that helps, and best of luck with your weight loss journey! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to give it a look. Exceptional blog and brilliant design and style.

Thanks for the kind words and for visiting the site — let me know your Twitter handle so I can return the favor! Those first 2 weeks i dropped 13 lbs, but that third week i lost maybe 1 lb. I was only eating the provided meals the first two weeks usually around only calories per day obviously that was unhealthy, so i added in a few snacks to put me right around calories per day.

But unfortunately that has resulted in minimal weight loss. Did you have plateaus like this? And how did you over come these stalls? I did just purchase an elliptical and also a stationary bike, but only on day 2 with those. Your review was wonderful and very well written, so thank you! Hi Julie- Thank you so much for sharing your story, and way to go for making it through your first month!

I think the calorie restriction is the hardest part about Nutrisystem, and why now I typically only do the diet for a month or two and then really focus on just eating right and getting enough exercise after that.

For me, the approach after Nutrisystem has been intermittent fasting IF. That said, I have had a lot of success with it, and find that I can maintain a healthy weight for long stretches of time when using it.

I started with the turbo charge and continued now for almost 3 weeks. I have only lost 3 lbs. When I emailed a counselor they said that was normal and I was doing well. Big hope very disappointed. In any case, hope the rest of your month goes well, and best of luck moving forward. I just started Nutrisystem. I always lost weight on the low carb diet when I was younger. But the fat intake was not good.

Just to avoid all the carbs… Did you or anyone else have a issue with how many carbs are in each meal? Is this ok lol… Please someone assure me all the carbs are ok! Thanks for visting, and best of luck with your first month! Thanks for the excellent review and videos. Excited to see what kind of progress I can make. Hi Krystal — thanks for visiting the site, and taking the time to read my review and watch the videos. Always happy to hear that it helped! Thanks for the great info and for sharing your story!

Thanks for the kind words, June! Congrats on taking the first step and best of luck with Nutrisystem — hope it goes well! I mastered more new things on this fat reduction issue. An enormous reduction in junk food, sugary foods, fried foods, sugary foods, beef, and white flour products may perhaps be necessary.

Holding wastes unwanted organisms, and wastes may prevent ambitions for fat-loss. While specific drugs for the short term solve the situation, the unpleasant side effects are certainly not worth it, plus they never present more than a short-term solution. Many thanks sharing your thinking on this weblog. Thanks for the input Saul. Have you ever considered creating an ebook or guest authoring about Nutrisystem on other sites? I know my readers would appreciate your work.

If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an email. Hi Lance — I actually do have an eBook in the works, so stay tuned for that! I just wanted to say that this post is awesome, well written and lots of useful Nutrisystem info. Looking forward to my first shipment. Hi Corburt — Thanks for the kind words, and best of luck with your first month — hope it goes well! I just wanted to offer you a huge thumbs up for the great information you have right here on this post.

I will be returning to your site for more soon! This blog looks exactly like my old one! Great choice of colors! Really inspired by your story — thanks for sharing! I am planning to start Nutrisystem after the New Year. Hi Erin — Thanks so much for the positive feedback. The first time I ever used Nutrisytem, which was many years ago at this point, I think I was one it for 4 months.

I had a lot more weight to lose then; now when I sign up, I usually use it for a month, maybe two at the most. To lock in the auto delivery deal, you have to commit to two months, so if you hit your weight loss goals after month 1, I recommend switching your order to just the Turbo Shakes — that will ensure you lock in the most savings, and also helps to keep you on track once you start transitioning off the program. As I have said before, you have to be committed to the program to get results, but as long as you follow their plan you will lose weight!

Anyways, best of luck and please let us know how it goes: Thanks for sharing your story. Drinking over ounces and eating tons of leafy greens. I did NS about 4 years ago lost almost This past July was told my chloerstral and blood pressure was too high for 28 year old. So black Friday I ordered when prices decreased. Hi Amanda — Thanks for visiting and reading my story. Hope it goes as well this time around. Thanks for sharing your superb review. You have a lot of good info here.

I am looking for a diet to try just after the new year, and this might be the one. Either way, appreciate all of the details you shared. Thanks, just what I was looking for. I have about 20 pounds to lose — is this doable in a month or two? Hi Sam — Thanks for the positive feedback. Losing 20 pounds is definitely doable with Nutrisystem, but I would budget at least two months.

I signed up for Nutrisystem this week, and I am really hoping that I have the same results. I think my first shipment should arrive just before Christmas, so think I will get started right after the holiday.

Thanks so much for the review — definitely gives me hope!