Celebration of his life will be on Wednesday, July 18 at 4: Aetna considers CADASIL genetic testing experimental and investigational for all other indications because its effectiveness for indications other than the ones listed above has not been established. In the presence of family history of Marfan syndrome, the presence of one of any of the following is diagnostic for Marfan syndrome: Dan fulfilled one of his dreams when he opened his own clothing store. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements from plants or fish sources do not appear to benefit or harm people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The authors were also able to replicate some SNPs with suggestive associations.
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However, Cicero's views on aging, although progressive, were largely ignored in a world that would be dominated by Aristotle's medical writings for centuries.
Subsequent physicians during the time of Roman Empire such as Galen and Celsus simply repeated the beliefs of Aristotle while adding few new contributions to medical knowledge. Byzantine physicians sometimes wrote of dementia, and it is recorded that at least seven emperors whose lifespans exceeded the age of 70 displayed signs of cognitive decline. In Constantinople , there existed special hospitals to house those diagnosed with dementia or insanity, but these naturally did not apply to the emperors who were above the law and whose health conditions could not be publicly acknowledged.
Otherwise, little is recorded about dementia in Western medical texts for nearly years. One of the few references to it was the 13th-century friar Roger Bacon , who viewed old age as divine punishment for original sin.
Although he repeated existing Aristotelian beliefs that dementia was inevitable after a long enough lifespan, he did make the extremely progressive assertion that the brain was the center of memory and thought rather than the heart. Poets, playwrights, and other writers however made frequent allusions to the loss of mental function in old age. Shakespeare notably mentions it in some of his plays including Hamlet and King Lear.
During the 19th century, doctors generally came to believe that dementia in the elderly was the result of cerebral atherosclerosis , although opinions fluctuated between the idea that it was due to blockage of the major arteries supplying the brain or small strokes within the vessels of the cerebral cortex.
This viewpoint remained conventional medical wisdom through the first half of the 20th century, but by the s was increasingly challenged as the link between neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cognitive decline was established.
By the s, the medical community maintained that vascular dementia was rarer than previously thought and Alzheimer's disease caused the vast majority of mental impairments in old age.
More recently however, it is believed that dementia is often a mixture of both conditions. Much like other diseases associated with aging, dementia was comparatively rare before the 20th century, due to the fact that it is most common in people over 80, and such lifespans were uncommon in preindustrial times. Conversely, syphilitic dementia was widespread in the developed world until largely being eradicated by the use of penicillin after WWII.
With significant increases in life expectancy following WWII, the number of people in developed countries over 65 started rapidly climbing. Public awareness of Alzheimer's Disease was greatly increased in when former US president Ronald Reagan announced that he had been diagnosed with the condition.
Dementia in the elderly has previously been called senile dementia or senility , and viewed as a normal and somewhat inevitable aspect of growing old, rather than as being caused by any specific diseases. The terminology, "senile dementia" or "senility", is no longer recommended. This was associated with particular microscopic changes in the brain, but was seen as a rare disease of middle age because the first person diagnosed with it was a year-old woman.
By the period of —20, schizophrenia had been well-defined in a way similar to today, and also the term dementia praecox had been used to suggest the development of senile-type dementia at a younger age. Eventually the two terms fused, so that until physicians used the terms dementia praecox precocious dementia and schizophrenia interchangeably. The term precocious dementia for a mental illness suggested that a type of mental illness like schizophrenia including paranoia and decreased cognitive capacity could be expected to arrive normally in all persons with greater age see paraphrenia.
After about , the beginning use of dementia for what is now understood as schizophrenia and senile dementia helped limit the word's meaning to "permanent, irreversible mental deterioration". This began the change to the more recognizable use of the term today.
In , neurologist Robert Katzmann suggested a link between senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease. He noted that "senile dementia" not being considered a disease, but rather part of aging, was keeping millions of aged patients experiencing what otherwise was identical with Alzheimer's disease from being diagnosed as having a disease process, rather than simply considered as aging normally.
This suggestion opened the view that dementia is never normal, and must always be the result of a particular disease process, and is not part of the normal healthy aging process, per se. The ensuing debate led for a time to the proposed disease diagnosis of "senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type" SDAT in persons over the age of 65, with "Alzheimer's disease" diagnosed in persons younger than 65 who had the same pathology.
Eventually, however, it was agreed that the age limit was artificial, and that Alzheimer's disease was the appropriate term for persons with the particular brain pathology seen in this disorder, regardless of the age of the person with the diagnosis. Evidence of this is shown by numerous documented supercentenarians people living to or more that experienced no serious cognitive impairment.
There is some evidence that dementia is most likely to develop between the ages of 80 and 84 and individuals who pass that point without being affected have a lower chance of developing it.
Women account for a larger percentage of dementia cases than men, although this can be attributed to their longer overall lifespan and greater odds of attaining an age where the condition is likely to occur.
Also, after , mental illnesses like schizophrenia were removed from the category of organic brain syndromes , and thus by definition removed from possible causes of "dementing illnesses" dementias.
At the same, however, the traditional cause of senile dementia — "hardening of the arteries" — now returned as a set of dementias of vascular cause small strokes.
These were now termed multi-infarct dementias or vascular dementias. In the 21st century, a number of other types of dementia have been differentiated from Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementias these two being the most common types. This differentiation is on the basis of pathological examination of brain tissues, by symptomatology, and by different patterns of brain metabolic activity in nuclear medical imaging tests such as SPECT and PETscans of the brain.
The various forms of dementia have differing prognoses expected outcome of illness , and also differing sets of epidemiologic risk factors. The causal etiology of many of them, including Alzheimer's disease, remains unclear, although many theories exist such as accumulation of protein plaques as part of normal aging, inflammation either from bacterial pathogens or exposure to toxic chemicals , inadequate blood sugar, and traumatic brain injury.
The societal cost of dementia is high, especially for family caregivers. Many countries consider the care of people living with dementia a national priority and invest in resources and education to better inform health and social service workers, unpaid caregivers, relatives, and members of the wider community.
Several countries have national plans or strategies. The former British Prime Minister David Cameron has described dementia as being a "national crisis", affecting , people in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, as with all mental disorders, where people with dementia could potentially be a danger to themselves or others, they can be detained under the Mental Health Act for the purposes of assessment, care and treatment.
This is a last resort, and usually avoided if the person has family or friends who can ensure care. Driving with dementia could lead to severe injury or even death to self and others. Doctors should advise appropriate testing on when to quit driving. They do, however, acknowledge low-severity cases and those with an early diagnosis, and those drivers may be permitted to drive pending medical reports.
Many support networks are available to people with dementia and their families and caregivers. Several charitable organisations aim to raise awareness and campaign for the rights of people living with dementia. There is also support and guidance on assessing testamentary capacity in people who have dementia. This donation is the largest non-capital grant Atlantic has ever made, and the biggest philanthropic donation in Irish history.
There is limited evidence that links poor oral health to cognitive decline. However, failure to perform tooth brushing and gingival inflammation can be used as dementia risk predictors. The link between Alzheimer's and gum disease is oral bacteria. Six oral trepomena spirochetes have also been examined in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Inflammatory pathogens are an indicator of Alzheimer's disease and bacteria related to gum disease have been found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease individuals.
It has also been found that individuals with a plethora of tooth plaque have a risk of cognitive decline. HSV persists in the peripheral nervous system and can be triggered by stress,illness or fatigue. NFTs are known as the primary marker of Alzheimer's disease. Media related to Dementia at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 16 September This article is about the cognitive disorder.
For other uses, see Dementia disambiguation. For other uses, see Senile disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Parts of this article those related to see PMID need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Cognitive therapies for dementia. Assessment in nonverbal patients. National Library of Medicine.
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There is not a single piece of puzzle for this webmaster concerning the modern Chinese history. This webmaster had read Wellington Koo's memoirs page by page more than ten years ago, and read General Hu Zongnan's biography twenty years ago, which was to have re-lived their lives on a day by day basis. Not to mention this webmaster's complete browsing of materials written by the Soviet agents as well as the materials that were once published like on the George Marshall Foundation's website etc to have a full grasp of the international gaming of the 20th century.
The unforgotten emphasis on " Republican China ", which was being re-outlined to be inclusive of the years of to and divided into volumes covering the periods of pre to , to , to , to , and , will continue. This webmaster plans to make part of the contents of "Republican China, A Complete Untold History" into publication soon. The original plan for completion was delayed as a result of broadening of the timeline to be inclusive of the years of For up-to-date updates, check the RepublicanChina-pdf.