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Asegurar la participaci n de Ayuda en Acci n en espacios de articulaci n con iniciativas regionales sobre desarrollo rural y seguridad alimentaria. To learn more about Social Impact, please visit our website: These components work in combination to reduce nutrient and sediment loading, improve habitat conservation, and address gaps in research and mapping to help conserve critical wetland resources. We continue to work with our national groups to find resolve to the current trade issues. Kuppermann BD, Blumenkranz MS, Haller JA et al Randomized controlled observe of an intravitreous dexamethasone cure-all pronunciation system in patients with persistent macular edema. Use an allowable storage time chart for cereal grains to estimate allowable storage times for soybeans.

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Counter-rotating discs provide improved cut quality while minimizing crop streaking. The heavy-duty, cast iron gearbox is a standard feature on Hesston by Massey Ferguson rotary heads, designed to handle tough conditions and provide long life for these mower conditioners. These sharp, durable knives are created with a special cold-rolled process for a wear-resistant edge that maintains its sharpness longer than ground-edge knives.

Other knife options also are available through AGCO Parts to match various crop and field conditions. To minimize downtime, an optional quick-change knife system and the handy, new quick-change tool make fast work of replacing cutterbar knives. Conditioning systems to match crop and operating conditions The RazorEdge mower conditioners crimp the crop every 3 to 4 inches with a single set of steel-on-steel conditioner rolls.

This crimping action breaks open the stem for faster drying while preserving leaf quality. Plus, the herringbone tread design feeds and conditions material more evenly for improved windrow formation helping optimize crop quality, protein levels and palatability.

In addition to the standard steel-on-steel conditioner rollers, operators may choose rubber-on-rubber conditioner rolls on models and and rubber-on-steel conditioner rollers for models and The rubber-on-steel conditioner rolls are fully engaged with a rubber top roll and steel bottom roll to crimp plant stems along their entire length so stems dry at the same speed. Models and use the industry-exclusive hydraulic roll conditioning tension system while models and use a spring tensioner to deliver consistent roll pressure.

The and are also available with a tine conditioner or may be ordered without a conditioner. Tuesday September 11 Ag News T Topsoil moisture supplies rated 1 percent very short, 11 short, 77 adequate, and 11 surplus. Subsoil moisture supplies rated 1 percent very short, 15 short, 78 adequate, and 6 surplus. Corn condition rated 2 percent very poor, 4 poor, 12 fair, 53 good, and 29 excellent.

Corn dented was 86 percent, near 83 last year, and ahead of 80 for the five-year average. Mature was 22 percent, ahead of 17 both last year and average. Harvested was 1 percent, near 2 last year, and equal to average. Soybean condition rated 2 percent very poor, 5 poor, 11 fair, 56 good, and 26 excellent. Soybeans dropping leaves was 31 percent, ahead of 25 last year and 22 average.

Winter wheat planted was 4 percent, near 6 last year, and behind 11 average. Sorghum condition rated 0 percent very poor, 2 poor, 14 fair, 58 good, and 26 excellent.

Sorghum coloring was 83 percent, near 81 both last year and average. Mature was 13 percent, near 14 last year and 9 average. Pasture and Range Report: Pasture and range conditions rated 2 percent very poor, 4 poor, 16 fair, 60 good, and 18 excellent. Activities for the week included harvesting seed corn, chopping corn silage and moving grain. Topsoil moisture levels rated 1 percent very short, 3 percent short, 65 percent adequate and 31 percent surplus.

Subsoil moisture levels rated 2 percent very short, 7 percent short, 67 percent adequate and 24 percent surplus. Drought concerns in south central and southeast Iowa were eased after recent storms lifted adequate to surplus topsoil moisture ratings to 75 percent or greater.

Ninety-eight percent of the corn crop has reached the dough stage or beyond with 87 percent dented or beyond, a week ahead of the 5-year average. Twenty-eight percent of the corn crop was mature, also one week ahead of average. Corn condition rated 73 percent good to excellent. Fifty-eight percent of the soybean crop was coloring with 17 percent dropping leaves, 5 days ahead of average. Soybean condition rated 72 percent good to excellent. In spite of limited days suitable for fieldwork, there were a few reports of both corn for grain and soybeans being harvested.

The third cutting of alfalfa hay was 83 percent complete, more than a week behind the previous year as weather conditions continued to slow progress. Pasture conditions improved to 50 percent good to excellent. Heavy rains made feedlot conditions challenging for cattle producers.

The report is normally released on Mondays but was delayed this week due to technical issues. The Governor presided over closing ceremonies this afternoon. On Monday, daily proceedings commenced at the downtown Hilton. Breakfast was followed by a plenary session that highlighted success stories on trade and investment between Japan and the Midwest. Featured private sector participants included J. Nebraska and Japan share their own success story, with Japan being the second-largest importer of Nebraska products outside of North America and third-largest agricultural export market overall.

Governor Ricketts also met one-on-one today for an interview with the financial publication Nikkei, followed by a meeting with Shizuoka Prefecture Vice Governor Akihito Yoshibayashi, in which the leaders discussed the decades-long friendship between Nebraska and Shizuoka.

The company employs over 2, Nebraskans. More information about the conference proceedings can be found at midwest-japan. The Harvest Weight Proclamation specifically increases the weight allowable for shipment of corn, soybeans, hay, straw, and stover, by The proclamation again applies to loads transported on all highways within Iowa, excluding the federal interstate system.

Farmers who are transporting grain are also required to follow their vehicle safety standards on axle weights. The exemption will be granted for 60 days beginning, September 15, Conab Trims Corn Harvest Brazilian agriculture agency Conab cut its estimate for the corn harvest in the season, as productivity declined.

Conab estimated a total corn crop of Brazil's corn harvest in the season was Brazilian farmers take advantage of the country's mild winters to plant two crops each year, often soybeans then corn. The harvest of the winter crop of corn is almost complete, and productivity was lower than last year because some of it was planted later than is ideal, Conab said.

The country's farmers produced Ram Launches New Harvest Edition Chassis Cab Trucks Ram is celebrating its agricultural bonds with a new edition designed specifically for America's farm families. The Ram Chassis Cab Harvest Edition is an agricultural market-specific truck and is visually distinguished by two limited-availability colors: Optional powertrains include 4x4 versions of the 6. Harvest Edition Chassis Cab trucks are loaded with functional features that are designed to work, including large front tow hooks, a transfer-case skid plate, side steps, fog lamps and a rear back-up camera.

The Harvest Edition comes standard with technology farmers are looking for, including an optional 8. A large 7-inch reconfigurable cluster allows operators to monitor selected systems, such as filter life, engine hours and operating temperatures. The interior also includes an auto-dimming rearview mirror, leather-wrapped steering wheel, steering-wheel audio controls and power-sliding rear window Crew Cab.

The Harvest Edition features a premium exterior appearance packed with chrome highlights, including the grille, side-steps, door handles and mirrors. Polished aluminum wheels enhance all four corners inch on models, The Harvest package also includes body-color or Bright Silver wheel flares and upper fascia So is the ability of NK to leverage the vast research and development capabilities of Syngenta.

Every year, breeders produce and test more than 1 million corn genotypes, using their award-winning system of data analytics to pinpoint the characteristics most likely to help maximize yields.

They do all this with a farmer-driven focus, centering their efforts on specific opportunities. All NK hybrids have been extensively tested against key competitive products for years. To ensure strong performance continues, NK increased internal trialing by almost a third over the past year, securing more data in niche environments.

Plus, by being sold through retail, all NK corn is tested in local plots — one more test before ever being sold to farmers. In the ethanol market, Enogen grain enhances the ethanol production process by improving efficiency, while the same technology helps increase the value of corn as feed for dairy or beef cattle due to improved digestibility.

The museum is located at the Case IH headquarters in Racine, which gives visitors a chance to learn about the company's history, as well as new innovations in agricultural products and technology.

The experience includes a video presentation, tours of the Case IH factory, and a stop in the all new 20,square-foot showroom that features a collection of heritage pieces instrumental to the development of today's farming equipment. One of the displays is a first-generation Magnum tractor, which shares the space with three different configurations of midrange and large-frame Magnum tractors.

Meanwhile, visitors can commemorate their tour with apparel and accessories at the Case IH fan shop, including items exclusive to the Racine Experience Center. For tour information or to schedule a visit, call the Racine Experience Center at Monday September 10 Ag News T Please visit our website for more information or historic releases: Husker Harvest Days is Sept.

NDA staff will have information on livestock development and animal health, farm mediation and negotiations, the NextGen Beginning Farmer program, pests and pesticide management, and noxious weed control.

Postcards with messages in support of livestock growth will be available for people to sign. Most manure nutrients e. However, nitrogen in manure requires some simple advance planning to insure that it is given proper credit for offsetting commercial fertilizer inputs.

Ammonium-N from manure will convert to nitrate-N in the spring as soils warm. Organic-N from manure is a slow release nitrogen that converts to crop available-N through the warmer summer months of the growing season. Read More of this article, including sections on calculating crop-available nitrogen from manure, additional considerations for Manure-N, and more on Water. Direct link to the article is Maybe it would be wise to harvest some corn early to get some stalks.

Most of us soon will have only a little pasture left. But your cows will still be out there trying to get what little they can. Pastures put up with a lot of stress during grazing. As we approach winter, these plants need time to recover and to winterize. Even if they have received plenty of rain this year and are growing well, severe grazing now will weaken plants as they go into winter.

Next spring they will green-up later, early growth will be slow, and they'll compete poorly with weeds. Maybe the best way to get some rest for these pastures is to harvest some corn a little early and then move the cows to stalks.

Early stalks usually have more protein and energy than late stalks so they can put some condition on your cows while also relieving your pastures. This also lets your pastures grow and accumulate more forage without the stress of grazing. After the growing season is completely over you can graze any remaining forage on your pastures without causing much stress.

Since you need a little time to set up fences and water tanks on stalk fields anyway, maybe you should start corn harvest a little early this year. It might lessen the hectic pace you often feel later when you want to spend time in the combine harvesting crops as well as setting up stalk grazing.

Moving to stalks early is good for both your animals and your pastures. If you can work it out, take the time to make the change. Here are some things to look for. When should you rotate to a new field of alfalfa? One obvious answer is when the stand gets too thin. Okay, then, what is too thin? One guideline I use is density of alfalfa shoots and plants. Older, dryland fields should have 25 or more shoots coming from 2 or more plants per square foot to be worth saving. Irrigated fields need 40 shoots from 3 or more plants.

If your stand is thinner than these guidelines, look for somewhere to start a new field next spring. Also look at weed density. Are your fields getting weedier each year? Are many of the problems perennial plants like bluegrass, dock, or dandelions? If so, your alfalfa stand may lack the vigor or density needed to compete. A new field should be considered.

Alfalfa stands, though, sometimes last a long time. This is especially true for many older dryland fields. Once dryland fields exhaust all available subsoil moisture, yields drop even though stands may remain thick. In these fields, yield is limited to only what annual rainfall can support.

Many dryland fields reach this stage after four or five years. Rotating to a new field can provide a fresh source of deep subsoil moisture.

Rotating alfalfa through your fields just a little more frequently will give you this boost more often. Think about these factors as you decide whether or not to start new alfalfa next year. Crop fair sponsors include Cogdill Farm Supply, Inc. Webinar to Highlight the Benefits of Conservation Planning Iowa Learning Farms will host a webinar that will highlight the benefits of Conservation Planning for farmers and landowners on Wednesday, Sept.

Conservation Planning provides many benefits to the farmer operator, landowner and society through the identification of resource concerns and opportunities to implement practices like no-tillage, cover crops, waterways, saturated buffers, wildlife habitat and more. He will discuss how conservation planning optimizes the use of conservation practices, saves time and money, and improves water and soil quality. To watch, go to www. The webinar will be recorded and archived on the ILF website for watching at any time at https: Farmers who plant cover crops this fall may be eligible for the reduction on their crop insurance in This is the second year of the program that is aimed at increasing acres of cover crops in the state.

More than farmers used cover crops on nearly , acres last fall in the inaugural year of the demonstration project. Program information and the online sign-up and application process for farmers and landowners to certify eligible land for the program can be found at https: In an effort to streamline the sign-up process, IDALS is in the process of developing a new, online sign-up format.

At this time, sign-up is currently not open, but interested participants can get more background on the program and to help plan their cover crop seeding this fall. Farmers are encouraged to wait to apply until their cover crop seeding has been completed. Applications will be taken until January 15, The premium reduction will be available for fall-planted cover crops with a spring-planted cash crop.

Some policies may be excluded, such as Whole-Farm Revenue Protection or those covered through written agreements. Participating farmers must follow all existing good farming practices required by their policy and work with their insurance agent to maintain eligibility. Crop insurance is an integral part of the farm safety net that helps farmers manage the risks associated with growing a crop and provides protection for farmers impacted by severe weather and challenging growing conditions.

Cover crops can help prevent erosion and improve water quality and soil health, among other benefits. The ICGA PAC endorsements provide our members with another way to educate and influence policy decisions made at the state and federal level. They objectively evaluate all candidates regardless of their party affiliation, on ICGA policy only.

The success of ICGA's legislative policy efforts hinges on a bipartisan approach to achieving its policy objectives, bringing both sides together for the best interest of Iowa's corn farmers. The committee is recognized and respected for its bipartisan approach to achieving the policy objectives of Iowa corn growers by supporting lawmakers who work to implement ICGA member priorities. Endorsements for the federal election cycle include the following in alphabetical order: The second day of the meeting will focus on labeling considerations.

Representatives of industry, consumer groups and other stakeholders are invited to participate in the meeting. Attendees are encouraged to pre-register to attend the meeting.

The meeting will be held on Oct. SW, Washington, DC, Anyone who wishes to submit written comments prior to the public meeting or after the meeting may do so by submitting comments on regulations. Comments previously submitted to FDA in regard to the July 12, public meeting will also be considered. For further information on the joint public meeting and to register to attend the meeting, please visit the Meetings and Events page on the FSIS website. That is why it is encouraging to finally see USDA involvement on the issue of regulating lab-grown fake meat.

That sum represents 50 percent of the overall rise in U. The product will be shipped to buyers in 11 countries in four regions of the world during the months of August through March These contracts bring the total of CWT-assisted product sales to Undergraduate students, graduate students and collegiate clubs can sign up through September 21 at https: Students are guaranteed to become more confident communicators as they learn the fundamentals of agriculture communication from industry mentors throughout the nine-week competition.

Each week CAO mentors will offer their advice and expertise. High school seniors may apply online Sept. The student must maintain successful academic progress and be in good standing with the college or university to receive the full amount of the scholarship.

The student will be notified mid-December, with an official announcement made during Commodity Classic in Orlando, Feb. Friday September 7 Ag News T Diversifying a crop production system by including additional crops or methods can help overcome many of these issues.

This experiment used yellow field peas as the first crop in the double crop system. Yellow field peas are typically planted in March and harvested in July. Wheat has the ability to perform well in eastern Nebraska. The objectives of this project are: Current market prices for pulse crops are on this USDA site. Pulse Crops Variety Trial Although the double crop experiment is ongoing, an important component was to conduct a pulse crop variety trial to identify which varieties are best adapted to the environment in eastern Nebraska.

Yellow peas, green peas, lentils, and chickpeas were planted early in the spring and evaluated for their characteristics such as flowering, maturity, plant height, test weight and yield. Short season crops corn, soybean, sunflower, millet and milo , annual forages forage sorghum and sudangrass and cover crops were planted right after field pea harvest.

The research is ongoing and data on yield and water use will be shared following harvest. For more information, please contact Pam Esslinger at pam nebeef. Senator Deb Fischer R-Neb. Fischer and Ambassador Doud will host a roundtable discussion on trade with local agricultural representatives.

He was confirmed by the U. Senate on March 1, Ambassador Doud was raised on a dry-land wheat, grain sorghum, soybean, swine and cow-calf farm in Kansas. Field losses, splits and cracked seed coats increase as moisture content decreases. Also, molds develop more rapidly in soybeans with seed coat cracks, so the amount of mechanical damage during harvest affects the rate of bean deterioration. Moisture content can increase several points with an overnight dew or decrease several points during a day with low humidity and windy conditions.

Avoid harvesting when beans are driest, such as afternoons. The storage life roughly doubles for each percentage point of reduction in moisture content.

Storage Temperature Controlling soybean temperature during storage is critical. Free fatty acid percentages, a negative characteristic, tend to increase with storage moisture, temperature, and time. Cool soybeans as they go through the fall and winter to maintain quality. Aerate to keep the soybeans within 10 to 15 degrees of the average outdoor temperature during the fall. These temperatures enhance the storage life of soybeans and reduce mold and insect activity.

Use an allowable storage time chart for cereal grains to estimate allowable storage times for soybeans. Once soybeans are cooled, cover fan and duct openings to prevent snow or moisture from blowing into the bins during winter storage. Keep fans covered during the spring and summer to limit air from warming the soybeans.

Ventilate the top of the bin to reduce solar heating affecting the beans at the top of the bin. Outside temperature changes can result in temperature and moisture changes inside the bin. Monitor soybeans at least once every two weeks during winter storage and weekly during the fall until the grain has been cooled to winter storage temperatures.

Monitor the soybeans weekly during the spring and summer. Measure the grain temperature and watch for indications of problems such as condensation, insect activity, and increasing grain temperatures. Record temperature values and grain condition to help track any changes. Improved technology can help you better manage stored grain, but you still need to manage the grain and inspect it visually.

Temperature cables allow you to monitor the stored grain temperature at several locations, and fan controllers can operate fans according to desired air conditions. Monitor and verify that fans are operating as desired. Soybean moisture variation may lead to storage and marketing losses. Operating an aeration fan will help move moisture from wet to drier beans.

Moisture movement will be minimal without aeration airflow. Initially, fans will have to run longer to equalize the moisture content than to cool the grain.

The moisture will not be all the same, but it should become more uniform. These flood control structures help slow and capture flood water, helping reduce damages to fields, roads and property. The Lower Big Blue NRD sponsored the watershed project and purchased the land rights in order to build the flood control structures.

Flood control structures may easily go unnoticed across the landscape. But after a heavy rain event, like what was recently experienced in southeast Nebraska, these structures spring into action. They capture rushing flood water and hold the water back allowing it to be slowly released downstream.

Slowing the water down and allowing it to be gradually released reduces damage to roads, bridges, fences, cropland and other property. They work together with conservation practices to prevent damage to infrastructure. He saw how the flood control structures and conservation practices worked together to lessen the damage from the heavy rainfall.

With nearly watershed dams constructed statewide the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act has benefited over 1. The recent heavy rain events have also demonstrated the importance of good soil conservation practices. According to Kelli Evans, district conservationist at the NRCS office in Beatrice, conservation practices like no-till, terraces, waterways and buffer strips protected fields from significant erosion.

The fields where conservation practices were in place fared much better. This is because terraces and waterways help slow rainwater down reducing damages from heavy rains.

For more information on installing conservation practices on your land to help prevent erosion and reduce flooding, contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service office located in the USDA Service Center, or learn more at www.

What tweaks have you made in your own beef cattle operation? There are more tools and data available than ever to create an animal that fits many environments while producing superior beef. What if we keep late-calving cows by using CIDRs and a shot of prostaglandin to move them up one, two, even three cycles? The trend includes more transparency and higher quality. A handful of large food companies from Walmart to Dole currently use blockchain, but it will take innovative thinking to get the masses onboard.

Risk varies from herd to herd and strategies may need to vary year to year. On arrival, some calves are too stressed to meet that practical definition. University of Arkansas data on high-risk calves showed an advantage to waiting a couple of weeks before administering those shots. Referring to conversations about cattle supplement timing, storage and delivery, he said vitamins are finicky. Nutrition on the ranch, must be continued with a solid plan in the feedyard. Dale Blasi, Kansas State University animal scientist, suggested feeders ask their consultants about limit feeding a grain-based ration to calves at 2.

K-State work shows many benefits, from decreased cost of gain and better health to reduced labor and manure management. It was common practice two or three decades ago. It might be time to revisit the strategy, Blasi said: Dan Basse, president of AgResource Co. Delegates approved policy reaffirming that food labels should be factual and not misleading to consumers.

Also this year, members agree that conservation needs to remain a priority, and discussed support for working lands conservation practices. This process ensures a strong, unified voice on behalf of our membership to support a vibrant future for Iowa agriculture, farm families and their communities. Cost share provided by the federal government on working lands will increase the adoption of effective conservation practices.

Silage Making with Weather Challenges Corn silage has always been a major feed component in dairy and beef rations. However, this year's weather is making harvesting corn silage a challenge for many areas of the state. Northwest and northeast Iowa had excess rain early in the season making planting late so producers in northern Iowa may not be challenged as much with harvest, yet.

Eastern Iowa was dry in the spring allowing early planting and now is challenged to harvest before the crop becomes too dry, especially with the heavy rains in September. Southern Iowa has been extremely dry all summer and is finally getting some much needed rain but too late to impact grain crops. While every area of the state has had different growing conditions all have been challenging. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach beef specialist Denise Schwab said a few basic principles of corn silage harvest are critical to harvest and store a high quality corn silage feedstuff.

The number one priority for high quality silage is to harvest at the right moisture content. The bacteria that convert the plant sugars into lactic acid need the right moisture to drive fermentation. Ideally, the plant should be at 35 percent dry matter or 65 percent moisture to facilitate packing the silage to exclude oxygen and promote fermentation. What options do producers have when the plant gets drier than this?

One might be to switch the storage method. Retired extension forage specialist Steve Barnhart said the optimum silage moisture at harvest ranges from percent percent dry matter for upright oxygen-limiting silos; percent for upright stave silos; percent for bags; and percent for bunkers. Pay particular attention to moisture measurements; agronomists tend to talk in terms of moisture level while animal scientists tend to focus on dry matter levels.

Another option is to consider switching from silage to earlage or snaplage. Earlage or snaplage is harvested at closer to percent dry matter. Chop length and kernel processing are important for dairy producers. Extension dairy specialist Hugo Ramirez-Ramirez suggests a theoretical length cut of.

University of Nebraska—Lincoln research showed a 7 percent improvement in finishing cattle feed to gain by kernel processing. As the corn plant gets drier, smaller particle size may aid in improved packing and fermentation but also needs to offset the cost of the additional processing.

Inoculants with lactic acid-producing bacteria will help speed the drop in pH to around 4. This is particularly important in situations where an efficient fermentation process may be compromised. As standing corn becomes dryer, inoculants become more important. Whether it is silage, snaplage or earlage, Ramirez-Ramierz recommends that producers look into inoculants that contain Lactobacillus buchneri. This translates into less heating and less spoiling once the silage is open.

Packing also is critical and becomes more of a challenge with dry silage. Packing eliminates oxygen, which aids in the anaerobic fermentation process. Silage density needs to be around pounds of dry matter per cubic foot to exclude oxygen.

Bunkers and piles should be packed in layers no more than 6 inches at a time. Density is dependent on crop type, moisture, chop length, type of structure, delivery rate, packing weight and time. With dry silage, err on the side of extra packing time and weight. The final and most important practice for quality silage is to seal and cover the silage, both to prevent the entrance of oxygen and to keep rain from infiltrating the silage. With less than ideal chopping and packing situations, consider adding both an oxygen barrier layer as well as a plastic cover.

Both need to be weighted down to prevent air infiltration. If using old tires, be sure they all are touching other tires to get full coverage of the plastic. These good practices are important for quality silage every year, but even more important in years like when wet weather is delaying silage harvest. Iowa State University Economist Advises Cost Containment, and Patience, for Farmers Marketing Crop As harvest approaches, Chad Hart, associate professor of economics at Iowa State University, urged Iowa farmers to watch their costs and be patient as they face a difficult market for corn and soybeans.

But time is still on our side if we can position ourselves to ride out the next few months. Seasonal patterns and the current futures prices both suggest better prices will be available in the spring. Many farmers use storage as it achieves two of these three objectives, but it makes sense this year also to re-examine their approaches to crop marketing and storage. Hart said some recovery has occurred, and could resume, as the trade markets shift — such as increasing crop shipments to north Africa.

Looking forward, the keys to marketing this year are roughly the same as the ones for the previous few years, since we have once again returned to negative margin projections. Department of Agriculture reports, projected Iowa corn returns were hovering just below breakeven, while soybean returns remain well below zero. Both crops face large potential supplies, but soybeans are much more vulnerable to the trade tensions. Over the past two years, 2. This legislation will restore our commitment to renewable fuels and keep the promise made by the government to our farmers, producers, and businesses.

It will also end the secretive practice the EPA has used to issue these waivers behind closed doors with no transparency for the American people," said Congressman Young. The EPA recently released its proposed Renewable Volume Obligations which did not include a plan to reallocate gallons that might be waived by the EPA for small refineries moving forward. This update was prepared the week of August 20, The estimates do not incorporate the market facilitation payments and other trade compensation policies announced on August Given all of the assumptions of the analysis, here are a few highlights of the results: Projected record soybean production in also contributes to a sharp increase in ending stocks.

Corn and wheat area each increase by about 2 million acres in Markets will continue to evolve as we get more information about the size of the crop and as trade and farm policies change.

For more detail on the livestock, poultry and dairy sectors and on consumer food prices, see a companion report by the MU Agricultural Markets and Policy team, at http: Although the supply increases may be lower due to recently lower than expected slaughter weights there will still be year-over-year beef production increases of 3.

This supply pressure will continue to put long-term downward pressure on prices. This increase in beef production will be occurring simultaneously with the increase in pork production. Export markets have until recently absorbed large amounts of our increased animal protein production. Higher tariffs and weaker demand is putting pressure on those exports. Beef trade has been supportive of beef prices. The bigger trade concern for cattle is the indirect effects from decreased trade opportunities for pork.

Futures markets will react quickly and aggressively to political announcements that may or may not materialize into market changes. It takes a long time to increase the number, but we can lose our markets very quickly. The short-term excitement over the U. Beginning those negotiations with China now may possibly have fortuitous timing impacts as China will start needing U. The Chinese demand for U. Producers will lobby congressional lawmakers on issues of importance to the U.

Following that, the Farmers Union members will make their way over to Capitol Hill for a Farm Bill Forum, where they will engage with members of Congress on legislative priorities. On Thursday and Friday, Fly-In participants will visit all congressional offices to meet with members of Congress and congressional staff to deliver their personal stories as to how federal level policies impact their families and communities.

Department of Agriculture's USDA's opposition to the group's motion to expand the scope of their beef checkoff case to include more states. The district court granted, and the appellate court upheld, a preliminary injunction stopping USDA from violating the U.

Constitution by compelling Montana cattle producers to pay for the private speech of the private Montana Beef Council without the producers' consent. R-CALF USA asked the court to expand the case to include 13 additional states in which producers are similarly required to pay for the private speech of their respective private beef councils without their consent.

The USDA filed an opposition to the group's request, essentially claiming the USDA would be prejudiced if the court expanded the case because the government would then be deprived of arguing their position in each of the courts in the states where the additional beef councils are located. Today's reply urges the court to expand the case to include 15 states, by adding Maryland. The reply states the case rests on the sole question of whether the government has violated the Constitution by compelling producers to fund private speech without their consent.

Because civil actions may be brought against the federal government in any federal district court, R-CALF USA asserts the Montana federal court has jurisdiction over both the USDA and the Constitution and can, therefore, include the additional states. We want to empower independent cattle producers to hold their respective beef councils accountable for the money that is received and spent.

We want to uphold the principals of our free market system by making the decision to fund private speech voluntary. And, we want independent producers to have a meaningful opportunity to express either their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with how the overall beef checkoff program is operated. And, we want to empower independent producers to put an end to the pay-to-play scheme in which state beef councils send millions of dollars to the National Cattlemen's Beef Association-controlled Federation of State Beef Councils while the NCBA is lobbying Congress to defeat initiatives important to producers, such as mandatory country-of-origin labeling and reforms to prevent meatpackers from manipulating cattle markets.

The application deadline has been extended to Friday, Sept. The awards recognize farm management practices of U. Are you using a reduced tillage practice on your farm? Do you grow cover crops? Have you taken steps to improve energy efficiency or water quality? These are just a few conservation practices used on some farms today that can help produce sustainable U. Different regions of the country have their own unique challenges and ways to approach conservation and sustainability.

Entries are judged on soil management, water management, input management, conservation, environmental management and sustainability. One farmer from each of these regions will be recognized at the Commodity Classic in Orlando, Fla.

All applications must be submitted by Friday, Sept. Ag Equipment Companies Closing Inventory Gap For the first time in three years, the gap between Ag equipment dealers' and manufacturers' opinions on equipment inventory levels has significantly narrowed.

In a survey conducted by the Association of Equipment Manufacturers AEM and the Equipment Dealers Association EDA of their respective members, the majority of dealers report that their new inventory is just right, although inventory is still too high. By contrast, manufactures have consistently held a more positive opinion of their dealers' inventory.

In , the first year this survey was completed, a significant majority of dealers felt that both their new and used inventories were too high.

In , while there was still a slim majority of dealers that thought inventory was too high, there was almost a 20 percent decrease from By contrast, the last two years of data showed that manufacturers believe that inventory of both new and used equipment are at the right level. When considering the second quarter April, May and June of , manufacturers agree - although not by wide margins - that their companies' inventories are staying about the same.

They agree much more dramatically 65 percent that their dealers' inventory levels remained stable in the second quarter. Dealer respondents on the other hand, overwhelmingly reported that both new and used inventories have been decreasing. While overall the results of the survey are positive for both dealers and manufacturers, there are economic implications to consider. Based on previous research, AEM and EDA know that, in regards to inventory, both groups are cognizant of the potential effect of steel and aluminum tariffs on the industry.

Thursday September 6 Ag News T Total undergraduate enrollment increased 3. Just over 75 percent of undergraduate students are from Nebraska, with non-resident students. Enrollment for non-resident students increased Graduate enrollment increased to a total of students who work side-by-side with faculty recognized worldwide for innovation and creativity. CASNR also welcomed international undergraduate students to campus this fall. CUSP students will pursue a bachelor of science degree in integrated science that is focused on conservation agriculture, entrepreneurship, leadership, and innovative thinking and is aligned with the areas of need as identified by the Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources.

As part of this international collaboration, students enrolled in the program have the opportunity to learn from NWAFU faculty as well as faculty in Nebraska. In the third year, Nebraska faculty travel to NWAFU to teach the students, and in the fourth year students travel to Nebraska to complete their degrees. Fall enrollment at the University of Nebraska—Lincoln is 25, The university experienced its third-largest enrollment after graduating its largest class in history.

The student body is also its most diverse in history, and enrollment of out-of-state freshmen continues to increase. The seminars take place on most Mondays during the fall semester from 3 to 4 p. The first lecture is Sept. The seminars are free and open to the public. He is an internationally known expert in forage ecophysiology.

His interests include the management, ecology and research techniques of forage crops and pastures. His current research concentrates on quantifying the water use of forage crops and pastures as affected by grazing management in an effort to improve forage utilization by cattle and to make most efficient use of limited water supplies to sustain profitable agriculture.

The seminar schedule can be found at https: The schedule is subject to revision; any changes will be noted on the website. Each seminar is videoed and uploaded to the website above a few days after the presentation.

Contact the Center for Grassland Studies for more information at or email grassland unl. The survey is just 19 questions long and takes about five minutes to complete. Precipitation rates, for example, have so far been one of the most utilized observations, but the current rain gauge sensor is subject to environmental factors, such as spider webs.

If desire for that rain data holds true, Nebraska Mesonet would look to install a second rain gauge at each weather station, as weather networks in neighboring states do. The survey also will inform what data is made available on the Nebraska Mesonet website. The mesonet site currently makes available real-time data for each of its 68 stations, which are funded by 24 private, corporation or state agency investors.

This first-of-its-kind grain system technology gives farmers a safer, more efficient and less labor-intensive option for unloading their grain bins. The liners are constructed of durable, commercial-grade material designed to last over 30 years under normal conditions. In addition, they can easily be repaired in case of accidental puncture with a simple glue patch. The foot Z-Series Bin has a storage capacity ranging from 5, to 25, bushels, depending on height. Air is distributed through the central reclaim to flexible tubes that move with the liners.

To learn more, farmers can contact their local GSI dealer or visit http: Those tabbed to serve as ISA officers were: Lindsay Greiner of Keota accepted the gavel as president and welcomed the newly elected state soybean leaders to their key posts. Greiner joined those elected in welcoming the chance to serve. The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the Iowa Pork Producers Association are encouraging pork producers to be on the lookout for clinical signs of the disease and to contact their veterinarian if they have herd health concerns.

Our pork producers do a great job with biosecurity and protecting pig health and the new cases highlight the importance of everyone remaining diligent in their biosecurity efforts. The skin may be reddened, blotchy, or have blackened lesions. Infected pigs may also have diarrhea, vomiting, coughing and difficulty breathing.

Currently, no vaccine or treatment exists. The virus is easily spread between pigs by direct contact or indirectly from contact with contaminated objects. The virus can survive in the environment, on shoes and clothing, vehicles, and in feed components. Uncooked or undercooked meat including refrigerated and frozen products can carry the virus, making the feeding of food waste to pigs a pathway to spread the disease.

Ticks, flies, and other insects may also spread the virus. Feed ingredients imported may also be a potential source of disease transport and producers should evaluate feed ingredient sources for potential risk.

Biosecurity Important for Farmers Farmers can take steps to protect their animals and prepare for a possible FAD event. Maintaining a high level of on-farm biosecurity is the best protection. More information is available at https: Forms to complete or update premises registration information is available at http: Guided by grassroots input from every county Farm Bureau in the state, Governor Reynolds and Secretary Naig were selected based on support of Farm Bureau policies and commitment to Iowa's farm families and agricultural economy.

Candidates earn the Friend of Agriculture designation by supporting issues that directly impact Iowa's agricultural economy, farm families, and their communities. Reynolds has a proven track record of leading the way on issues that matter to Iowa's farm families and their communities. She championed efforts to pass historic water quality funding and provide affordable health care options for Iowans. Governor Reynolds also signed a sweeping tax reform package with several provisions that will encourage continued economic and job growth across Iowa.

Since his appointment, Secretary Naig has hit the ground running as a leader in the successful implementation of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy to continue to advance water quality and soil conservation efforts, and he fully understands that agriculture, both crops and livestock, are key to growing a more prosperous Iowa.

Export value results were mixed, with beef exports posting another near-record month while pork export value declined, reflecting the impact of retaliatory duties imposed by Mexico and China. Pork exports totaled , metric tons mt in July, up 1. Buyers outside of Mexico and China have stepped up to purchase our product, which is fantastic.

But they are capitalizing on a buying opportunity made possible by the higher costs of doing business in Mexico and China. For January through July, the percentage of total pork production exported fell from July exports accounted for 14 percent of total beef production and For January through July, exports accounted for From high-end restaurants to convenience stores, U.

This took a toll on July exports to Mexico, especially in terms of value. July volume was 56, mt, down just 4 percent from a year ago. In China, the duty rate on U. Pork variety meat volume to China was hit especially hard in July, dropping 49 percent from a year ago to 7, mt.

The July export picture was much brighter in other major markets — including Japan, the leading value destination for U. Other January-July highlights for U.

But Korea is also importing more of a wider range of U. Although year-to-date pork exports to Chile were down 7 percent, exports gained momentum in July and were the second-largest on record at 4, mt.

Honduras and Guatemala are the leading destinations, but U. Beef export value reaching new heights in wide range of markets U. Australia is expected to trigger its beef safeguard in the coming weeks, resulting in a temporary tariff rate increase agreed to in the Korea-Australia Free Trade Agreement. This could further strengthen momentum for U.

Efforts to build a presence for U. Exports to Singapore and Indonesia have also increased this year, though volumes to Indonesia slowed the past two months. Despite a modest decline in volume, export value also increased to Honduras. Lamb exports still climbing U. Ethanol Supplies Extend Lower Domestic ethanol stocks extended lower for a second straight week as supply at the Gulf Coast eroded further in the final week of August, Energy Information Administration data released Thursday, Sept.

EIA reports ethanol inventories fell , barrels bbl during the week ended Aug. Plant production jumped 17, barrels per day bpd to 1. Four-week average production was 1. Net refiner and blender inputs, a measure for ethanol erased the prior week gain, fell 7, bpd to , bpd during the week-ended Aug. For the four weeks ended Aug. For the first time, NCGA will accept applications from students pursuing degrees in all subject areas. Previously, only those pursuing those in agriculture-related fields were considered.

In doing so, we will foster those who will help our industry while inspiring young people to consider how their future impacts farmers in ways which they may have previously not realized. Berg Academic Excellence in Agriculture Scholarship Program must be entering at least their second undergraduate year or any year of graduate study, and they or a parent or legal guardian must be an NCGA member.

Scholarship applications must be received by December 1, Studies interrelationships between organisms and their natural and cultural environments with emphasis on populations, communities, and ecosystems. Assigns problems for independent study by the student, incorporating previous instruction and supervised by the instructor. Provides students the opportunity to research scientific literature on their selected topic, design and conduct a lab study, assemble and analyze observed lab data, and complete a final report on this research.

One year of college biology and one semester of college chemistry or faculty approval. Provides students an opportunity to research scientific literature on their selected topic, design a field study to be conducted, assemble and analyze observed field data, and complete a final report on this research.

Provides students the opportunity to research scientific literature on their selected topic, design a field study to be conducted, assemble and analyze observed field data, and complete a final report on this research. Presents overviews of all phases of construction project management. Introduces students to philosophy, responsibilities, methodology, and techniques of the construction process. Introduces topics related to the construction and design industries, organizations, construction contracts, bidding procedures, insurance, taxes, bonding, cost accounting, and business methods, including basic computer usage, safety, and general project management procedures.

Introduces general principles of residential building inspection including materials, foundations, framing, finishing, and building codes. Introduces topics related to the construction and design industries, organizations, construction contracts, bidding procedures, insurance, taxes, bonding, cost accounting, business methods, including basic computer usage, safety, and general project management procedures. Teaches students the specialized construction management best practices that must be utilized when managing a sustainable project.

Includes industry standards for green construction as identified by popular building rating systems. Introduces analysis and design of steel, wood, and reinforced concrete structural members, including loads, reactions, bending moments, stresses, and deflection for selection of beam and column sizes. Considers bolted and welded connections in steel design. Introduces determination of reinforcing steel sizes and arrangements in concrete members.

Focuses on materials takeoff and computing quantities from working drawings and specifications. Includes methods for computing quantities of concrete, steel, masonry, roofing, and excavation.

Deals with pricing building components, materials and processes, as well as transportation and handling costs, markup discount procedures, equipment costs, and labor rates. Introduces principles of planning and scheduling a construction project. Includes sequence of events and processes on a construction site. Studies scheduling techniques, including the critical path method. Covers whole number principles and computations. Develops the mathematical mastery necessary for MTE 1.

Credits not applicable toward graduation. Introduces basic reading and writing skills in preparation for subsequent courses by focusing on vocabulary development simple phonics, dictionary skills , conventions of Standard English basic grammar, punctuation, sentence structure , reading comprehension reading process, topics , study skills time management, textbook format , and critical thinking skills fact and opinion.

Presents a broad introduction to the functioning of business enterprise within the U. Introduces economic systems, essential elements of business organization, production, human resource management, marketing, finance, and risk management. Teaches the fundamentals of supervision, including the primary responsibilities of the supervisor.

Introduces factors relating to the work of supervisor and subordinates. Presents the various steps considered necessary when going into business. Includes areas, such as product-service analysis, market research evaluation, setting up books, ways to finance start-up, operations of the business, development of business plans, buyouts versus starting from scratch, and franchising.

Uses problems and cases to demonstrate implementation of these techniques. Covers interpersonal relations in hierarchical structures. Examines the dynamics of teamwork, motivation, handling change and conflict, and how to achieve positive results through others. Applies mathematical operations to business process and problems such as wages and payroll, sales and property taxes, checkbook records and bank reconciliation, depreciation, overhead, distribution of profit and loss in partnerships, distribution of corporate dividends, commercial discounts, markup, markdown, simple interest, present values, bank discount notes, multiple payment plans, compound interest, annuities, sinking funds, and amortization.

Examines history of the labor unions, labor contracts, bargaining processes, philosophy of unionism; use of bargaining techniques for non-wage issues; legal, social, and economic context of labor-management relations; responsibilities and duties of unions and management; analysis of public policy; and current state of the labor movement.

May apply simulation and cases of arbitration and collective bargaining procedures. Identifies management concerns unique to small businesses. Introduces the requirements necessary to initiate a small business and identifies the elements comprising a business plan. Presents information establishing financial and administrative controls, developing a marketing strategy, managing business operations, and the legal and government relationships specific to small businesses.

Teaches management and the management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Focuses on application of management principles to realistic situations managers encounter as they attempt to achieve organizational objectives.

Presents a behaviorally-oriented course combining the functions of management with the psychology of leading and managing people. Focuses on the effective use of human resources through understanding human motivation and behavior patterns, conflict management and resolution, group functioning and process, the psychology of decision-making, and the importance of recognizing and managing change.

Focuses on management practices and issues. Introduces employment, selection, and placement of personnel, forecasting, job analysis, job descriptions, training methods and programs, employee evaluation systems, compensation, benefits, and labor relations. Focuses on the key quality improvement concepts regarding products and services, customers and suppliers, and systems and processes that make quality a part of the work life of an organization. Emphasizes the role of teams, including team meeting skills and techniques, and a variety of quality improvement tools, such as flowcharts, run charts, Pareto diagrams, cause and effect diagrams, evaluation matrices, and implementation road maps.

Presents the different philosophies in Quality Control. Identifies methods for Process Improvement in manufacturing and service organizations, which includes Statistical Process Control when used in the quality control function of business and industry.

Introduces statistics as a tool in decision-making. Emphasizes ability to collect, present, and analyze data. Employs measures of central tendency and dispersion, statistical inference, index numbers, probability theory, and time series analysis. Focuses on statistical methodology in the collection, organization, presentation, and analysis of data; concentrates on measures of central tendency, dispersion, probability concepts and distribution, sampling, statistical estimation, normal and T distribution and hypotheses for means and proportions.

Presents an introduction to the American legal system, including an overview of the courts, civil, and criminal law. Develops an in-depth understanding of contracts, agency law, and business organizations. Provides knowledge of the development of a business plan, which can be used to acquire capital and serve as a management guide.

Combines knowledge that has been acquired in the areas of planning, management, and finance, using pro forma statements and marketing. Covers internet searching techniques. Recommended as a capstone course. Examines the legal, ethical, and social responsibilities of management. May use cases to develop the ability to think and act responsibly. Supervises on-the-job training in selected business, industrial or service firms coordinated by the college.

May be repeated for credit. Program head approval is required for enrollment in this course. Requires completion of a project or research report related to the student's occupational objective and a study of approaches to the selection and pursuit of career opportunities in the field. Students should have completed most of the management courses before enrolling in this course.

Emphasizes the early development of children's language and literacy skills. Presents techniques and methods for supporting all aspects of early literacy. Surveys children's literature, and examines elements of promoting oral literacy, print awareness, phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, quality storytelling and story reading. Addresses strategies for intervention and support for exceptional children and English Language Learners.

Focuses on promoting language and literacy skills as the foundation for emergent reading. Emphasizes phonetic awareness and alphabetic principles, print awareness and concepts, comprehension and early reading and writing. Introduces early childhood development through activities and experiences in early childhood, pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, and primary programs. Investigates classroom organization and procedures, and use of classroom time and materials, approaches to education for young children, professionalism, and curricular procedures.

Focuses on children's exploration, play, and creative expression in the areas of art, music, and movement. Emphasis will be on developing strategies for using various open-ended media representing a range of approaches in creative thinking.

Provides experiences in content, methods, and materials for the development of math, science, and social studies skills in children. Emphasis will be on developing strategies for using various resources to facilitate children's construction of knowledge. Addresses strategies for intervention and support for children with special needs and English Language Learners. Focuses on observation as the primary method for gathering information about children in early childhood settings.

Emphasizes development of skills in the implementation of a range of observation techniques. Includes 40 hours of field placement in early learning setting. Examines child growth and development from birth to 36 months. Focuses on development in the physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and language domains. Emphasizes the importance of the environment and relationships for healthy brain development during the child's first three years of life.

Explores the role of the early childhood educator in supporting emotional and social development of children, and in fostering a sense of community. Presents practical strategies for encouraging prosocial behavior, conflict resolution and problem solving. Emphasizes basic skills and techniques in child guidance. Reviews the history of and legal requirements for providing intervention and educational services for children with special needs.

Studies the characteristics of children with a diverse array of needs and developmental abilities. Explores concepts of early intervention, inclusion, guiding behavior and adapting environments to meet children's needs.

Studies and discusses the various models and theories of early childhood education programs, including current trends and issues. Presents state licensing and staff requirements. Explores methods of developing positive, effective relations with families to enhance their developmental goals for children. Considers culture and other diverse needs, perspectives, and abilities of families and educators. Emphasizes advocacy and public policy awareness as an important role of early childhood educators.

Describes risk factors and identifies community resources. Examines the purposes of school-age child care in today's society, the role of adults within school-age child care, and the state of the profession of school-age child care. Explores the creative activities, techniques, interactions, and program development that promote positive social and emotional growth in school-age children.

Emphasizes positive development through everyday programming and experiences. Discusses the development of social skills that school-age children need for self-management, including self-discipline, self-esteem, and coping with stress and anger.

Explores ways to effectively guide and discipline school-age children, focusing on how adults can facilitate positive pro-social and self-management skills. Examines the physical growth of school-age children and the role of health and recreation in school-age child development.

Explores the use of medication, misuse of drugs, health issues of children, and the availability of community resources. Focuses on implementation of activity planning and observation of children through participation in early childhood settings. Reviews legal and ethical implications of working with children. Supports the student in creating a professional educational portfolio. Examines the skills needed for establishing and managing early childhood programs.

Emphasizes professionalism and interpersonal skills, program planning, staff selection and development, creating policies, budgeting, and developing forms for recordkeeping.

Requires the completion of a project or research report related to the student's occupational objectives and a study of approaches to the selection and pursuit of career opportunities in the field. Focuses on the development of a portfolio to demonstrate professional competence in the field of early care and education. The resulting portfolio will be reviewed by early childhood faculty and other designated early childhood professionals.

Introduces understanding, speaking, reading, and writing skills and emphasizes basic Chinese sentence structure. This is the second semester of the two-semester course for beginners, or a refresher course for non-native speakers with other equivalent experience.

In this course, students will continue their introduction to basic standard Mandarin Chinese, spoken by over a billion people in mainland China, Taiwan, Singapore, and other parts of the world. They will learn to comprehend, speak, read, and write on a variety of topics related to daily life.

The course will also expand on the student's growing knowledge of essential aspects of Chinese culture. Presents basic inorganic and organic principles to students with little or no chemistry background. The credits are not applicable to any of the college's academic programs, although high school-level chemistry or higher may be required for entrance into certain programs. Emphasizes experimental and theoretical aspects of inorganic, organic, and biological chemistry.

Discusses general chemistry concepts as they apply to issues within our society and environment. Competency in Math Essentials MTE units as demonstrated through the placement and diagnostics tests or equivalent.

Explores the fundamental laws, theories, and mathematical concepts of chemistry. Designed primarily for science and engineering majors. Requires a strong background in mathematics. Introduces fundamental chemistry of carbon compounds, including structures, physical and chemical properties, syntheses, and typical reactions. Provides a laboratory experience for students in organic synthesis and qualitative organic analysis.

Introduces fundamental chemistry of carbon compounds, structures, and properties. Emphasizes reaction mechanisms and synthesis. Includes qualitative organic analysis. Explores fundamentals of biological chemistry. Includes study of macromolecules, metabolic pathways, and biochemical genetics. Introduces a science and engineering-oriented, high-level programming language.

Studies the C language and its application in problem-solving in a structured programming environment. Includes the concepts and practice of structured programming, problem-solving, top-down design of algorithms, basic C syntax, control structures, arrays, and data structures. Introduces basic hardware and software concepts of computer usage, programming languages, and the computer's impact on society. Includes applications of various types of software to illustrate how computers are used in sciences, social sciences, humanities, and education.

Covers the use of an operating system, word processing, spreadsheets, e-mail, library access, database access and retrieval, presentation graphics, and the Internet. Provides a broad introduction to computer science. Discusses architecture and the function of computer hardware, including networks and operating systems, data and instruction representation, and data organization. Covers software, algorithms, programming languages, and software engineering.

Discusses artificial intelligence and theory of computation. Includes a hands-on component with oral and written presentations. Introduces algorithm and problem-solving methods. Emphasizes structured programming concepts, elementary data structures, and the study and use of a high-level programming language.

Examines data structures, introduction to object-oriented design, and algorithm analysis. Covers data structures including sets, strings, stacks, queues, arrays, records, files, linked lists, and trees , polymorphism, inheritance, exceptions, interfaces, abstract data types, algorithm analysis including searching and sorting methods , and file structures.

Examines the hierarchical structure of computer architecture. Focuses on multi-level machine organization.

A simple assembler language is used by students to complete programming projects. Includes processors, instruction execution, addressing techniques, data representation, and digital logic.

Covers Boolean algebra, combinatorial and sequential circuits, algorithms and algorithm analysis, recursion, recurrence relations, graphs, and trees.

Includes language syntax, problem-solving techniques, top-down refinement, procedure definition, loop invariance, theory of numerical errors, program design, objects, classes, inheritance, files, strings, linked lists, stacks, queues, binary trees, recursion, and basic searching and sorting techniques, and debugging.

Explores the practical application of concepts and procedures, such as regulations and standards, safety, personal protective equipment PPE , universal precautions, and the work flow of the central service department.

Discusses disinfection, decontamination, transportation of soiled items, and cleaning processes. Explores the basics of instrumentation assembly and how to process instruments, including disassembly. Prepares the student to visually identify surgical instruments and distinguish category, use, and name of each instrument. Emphasizes quality assurance and provides the student with the skills to package and inspect instrumentation and equipment for sterilization.

Prepares the student for entry level practice in assembly area of the central service department. Covers the packaging process and sterilization method with an emphasis on disposable packaging materials, package closure methods, package labeling, sterility maintenance, selection of appropriate packing material, and identification of instruments by category, use, and name. Emphasizes quality assurance to enable the student to inspect, assemble, and prepare instrumentation for packaging.

Introduces the fundamentals of infection control. Content will include an introduction to concepts of microbiology including cell structure and theory, microbial function, human and pathogen relationships, infectious process, blood-borne and airborne pathogens, defense microorganisms, and principles of microbial control and destruction.

Provides students hands-on practice in the clinical setting of central sterile service with an emphasis on the decontamination and processing areas. Prepares the student for point-of-use processing, immediate-use steam sterilization, and high-heat and low-heat sterilization methods.

Emphasizes proper procedures involved in transporting sterile goods through facilities and between various clinical sites and quality assurance to ensure customer satisfaction and safety, records maintenance, sterile storage, and central service inventory. Provides the student with continued hands-on practice in the clinical setting with an emphasis on packaging, wrapping, and sterilization in the clinical setting within a central sterilization processing department.

Provides continued hands-on clinical experience in a central sterilization processing department. Examines the elements affecting speech communication at the individual, small group, and public communication levels with emphasis on practice of communication at each level.

Provides students with a critical understanding of film through the discussion and viewing of motion pictures with emphasis upon the study of film history and the forms and functions of film.

Students will develop skills to analyze the shared social, cultural, and historical influences of films and their contexts. Students will develop the skills to analyze the shared social, cultural, and historical influences of films and their contexts. The course focuses on the interplay of contemporary aspects of film creation such as diverse audiences, economic realities, and emerging media formats. Emphasizes the influence of culture on the communication process, including differences in values, message systems, and communication; focuses on the importance of culture in everyday living; acknowledges the growing need to communicate across cultures in an era of rapid globalization; and presents strategies for effective communication in a culturally-diverse workplace and community.

Studies food composition, dietary guidelines, and nutrients essential to healthy human life. Analyzes nutrient function and metabolism.

Provides an introduction to the oral health professions and covers basic terminology, historical perspective, the credentialing process, accreditation, professional organizations, and legal and ethical considerations.

Teaches anatomy of the head and neck, the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity, tooth morphology, deciduous and permanent dentition, as well as dental pathology and terminology. Studies head and neck anatomy, tooth morphology, pathological conditions of the oral cavity, disease processes, and microbiology.

Studies principles of management of disease-producing microorganisms and associated diseases. Emphasizes sterilization, asepsis, and disinfection techniques applicable in the dental office. Studies the materials utilized in the laboratory aspect of dentistry as support in treatment. Emphasizes the characteristics, manipulation, economical control, storage, and delivery of materials.

Provides instruction on the principles of clinical chairside dental assisting, dental equipment use and maintenance, safety, instrument identification, tray set-ups by procedures, and patient data collection. Emphasizes patient management during restorative procedures. Introduces the student to the various dental specialties, including oral surgery, orthodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, and pediatric dentistry.

Emphasizes integration and application of previous course content to operative dental procedures. Exposes students to concepts and terminology related to pharmacology, pain control, and dental medicinal agents. Emphasizes the use of materials in patient treatment. Studies topics related to community health issues, including identification of specific diseases, symptoms, causes, and effects.

Emphasizes the promotion of oral health in the community through patient education in oral home care techniques, dietary counseling, plaque control procedures, and application of medicinal agents. Exposes students to and provides practical experience in the legal aspects of dental office management with regard to ethics, jurisprudence, appointment control, recall systems, reception techniques, telephone techniques, accounts receivable and payable, payroll insurance claims, inventory control, and professional conduct in a dental office.

Teaches the physics of dental radiation and safety, equipment operation, cone placement for the parallel and bisection techniques, panoramic exposures, mounting, and film processing. Students must be at least 18 years old to enroll in course. Provides students clinical experience to supplement DNA through hands-on experience in the dental clinic at Reynolds.

Students will be assisting staff. Provides clinical experience within the private practice community by exposing students to the fast-paced dental office environment in which the student performs chairside and support services with an established team.

Focuses on chairside assisting in general dentistry at two different clinical sites. Students will complete the required number of clinical hours at the two assigned facilities. Introduces technical drafting from the fundamentals through advanced drafting practices.

Teaches lettering, metric construction, technical sketching, orthographic projection, sections, intersections, development, fasteners, theory, and applications of dimensioning and tolerances. Includes pictorial drawing and preparation of working and detailed drawings. Emphasizes reading, understanding, and interpreting standard types of architectural drawing, including plans, elevations, sections, and details.

Teaches computer-aided drafting concepts and equipment. Develops a general understanding of components and operating a typical CAD system. DRF is recommended for individuals with no experience in technical drawing prior to enrolling in DRF Focuses on training students in the contemporary techniques of 3D modeling, rendering, and animation on the personal computer. Introduces the principles of visualization, sometimes known as photo-realism, which enable the student to create presentation drawings for both architectural and industrial product design.

Uses computer animation to produce walk-throughs that will bring the third dimension to architectural designs. Provides basic knowledge of the construction, design, and application of selected modern diesel engines and their components. Covers induction and exhaust systems, cooling and lubricating systems, and fuel injection and governing systems.

Provides opportunity to disassemble, inspect, recondition, reassemble, and test selected engines. Teaches maintenance, adjustment, testing, and general repair of the typical fuel injection components used on non-automotive diesel engines. Includes engine and fuel system tune-up procedures and troubleshooting using current diagnostic equipment.

Studies the theory and operation of various truck and tractor electrical systems. Covers preheating, starting, generating charging , multiplexing, and lighting systems. Uses modern test equipment for measurement, adjustment, and troubleshooting electrical and electronic systems. Emphasizes the properties of fluid, fluid flow, fluid states, and the application of Bernoulli's equation.

Studies the chassis, suspension, steering, and brake systems found on medium and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

Covers construction features, operating principles, and service procedures for such power train components as clutches, multi-speed transmissions, propeller shafts, and rear axles.

Teaches operations of modern equipment to correct and adjust abnormalities. Studies the basic operational theory of pneumatic and air brake systems as used in heavy-duty and public transportation vehicles. Covers various air control valves, test system components, and advanced air system schematics. Teaches proper service and preventative maintenance of system.

Studies fundamentals of transportation air conditioning. Includes repair, service, and troubleshooting of the refrigeration systems used in road vehicles and heavy equipment. Provides supervised on-the-job training for pay in approved business, industrial, and service firms coordinated by the college. Presents a broad overview of economic theory, history, development, and application. Introduces terms, definitions, policies, and philosophies of market economies.

Provides some comparison with other economic systems. Includes some degree of exposure to microeconomic and macroeconomic concepts. Introduces macroeconomics, including the study of Keynesian, classical, monetarist principles and theories; the study of national economic growth, inflation, recession, unemployment, financial markets, and money and banking; and the role of government spending and taxation, along with international trade and investments.

Introduces the basic concepts of microeconomics. Explores the free market concepts with coverage of economic models and graphs, scarcity and choices, supply and demand, elasticities, marginal benefits and costs, profits, and production and distribution.

Introduces the "driver task" as related to the highway transportation system and factors that influence performance ability. Prepares students so they may be eligible to take certification exams for driving school instructors in both public and private schools. Focuses on developing effective general rubrics as a component of quality instruction. Examines various types of rubrics and learning targets. Encourages faculty reflection on their current teaching by considering formative assessment, instructional design, critical thinking, and questioning methods.

Fosters confidence and patience for experimenting with instructional design and reflecting on the scholarship of teaching. Develops effective classroom management strategies with an emphasis on creating a holistic classroom management plan. Examines the role of student engagement on classroom behavior and achievement.

Focuses on developing positive teacher-student relationships. Discusses teaching philosophies that facilitate effective classroom management. Provides an orientation to the teaching profession in Virginia, including historical perspectives, current issues, and future trends in education on the national and state levels. Emphasizes information about teacher licensure examinations, steps to certification, teacher preparation and induction programs, and attention to critical shortage areas in Virginia.

Includes supervised field placement in a K school. SDV and successful completion of 24 credits of transfer courses. Analyzes rules and regulations that govern the conduct of driver education programs with special emphasis on organization and administration.

Includes uses in the classroom, driving range, and on the street. Prepares students so they may be eligible to take the state certification exam in driver education. Provides instruction in concepts and strategies involved in teaching reading at the K levels. Includes topics on literacy, components of development, various reading programs, technology integration, and assessment tools.

May include field placement in a K school. Prepares students to construct graphic teaching aids; to select and develop materials for instructional support; and to operate, maintain, and use audiovisual equipment in the classroom. Focuses on the health and developmental needs of children and the methods by which these needs are met. Emphasizes positive health, hygiene, nutrition and feeding routines, childhood diseases, and safety issues. Emphasizes supporting the mental and physical well-being of children, as well as procedures for reporting child abuse.

Instructs educators in the method and practice for delivery of online course content. Includes instructional technology and instructional design theory and practice, with skills and strategies that educators will use to engage students and create a collaborative online environment.

Proficient working knowledge of the current VCCS online course delivery system. Provides students an opportunity to identify, create, and implement multimedia in an e-learning course. Introduces learners to the fundamentals of creating and organizing online courses according to the ASSURE Model of instructional design and the standards created by Quality Matters.

IDOL covers analyzing learners; writing proper learning objectives; ADA compliance; selecting methods, media, and materials to be used within an online course; utilizing those methods, media, and materials; requiring learner participation; evaluating and revising your course; assessing and measuring performance; and a self-reflection. Basic computer skills, ability to navigate the World Wide Web, experience using Blackboard in teaching for at least one semester, and permission of the instructor.

Introduces learners to the fundamentals of using various Web 2. EDU , basic computer and web navigation skills, and experience using BlackboardTM for at least one semester for teaching. Provides introduction to the fundamentals of implementing mobile technologies in the online teaching and learning environment.

Focuses on increasing student engagement using mobile technologies and includes an overview of mobile learning, common applications, researching and applying mobile learning, developing content and materials to be used with mobile devices, assessing in the mobile learning environment, social media, productivity, and a self-reflection.

EDU or equivalent; basic computer skills, including World Wide Web navigation; and experience using Blackboard for a minimum of one semester. EDU , basic computer and web navigation skills, and experience using Blackboard for at least one semester for teaching. Covers an introduction to multimedia, the ASSURE model of instructional design, various media formats, screen design and user friendliness, storyboards and storyboard development, multimedia development, assessment creation, and incorporating multimedia into Blackboard.

EDU , basic computer skills, familiarity with navigating the World Wide Web, and experience using Blackboard in teaching for a minimum of one semester. Examines the federal and state laws affecting the duties of teachers in ensuring the rights of students. Investigates the laws which protect teachers from litigation.

Discusses the impact of the United States Constitution and landmark cases so that participants may better understand how the law has influenced the American public school. Employs the Code of Virginia as the foundation for state and local policy. Prepares instructors in the pedagogy and course administration of teaching online courses and provides an overview of various technologies available for online instruction.

Focuses on the strategies of collaborating and teaching online. This course is intended for PreK teachers and administrators. Develops effective assessment practices of in-service teachers.

Focuses on a balanced assessment approach emphasizing the use of formative and summative assessments. Utilizes quality rubrics as a vital component of effective classroom assessment.

Addresses local, state, and federal requirements that impact classroom assessment. Examines the concept that quality assessment is vital to student success. Emphasizes the application of course content to each teacher's individual classroom setting. Presents theories and principles of orthographic projection. Studies multiview, pictorial drawings and sketches, geometric construction, sectioning, lettering, tolerancing, dimensioning, and auxiliary projections.

Studies the analysis and graphic presentation of space relationships of fundamental geometric elements: Includes instruction in computer-aided drafting.

Introduces the engineering profession, professionalism, and ethics. Design project also includes using presentation software, database searching, and prototyping. Introduces mechanics of vector forces and space, scalar mass and time, including S.

Teaches equilibrium, free-body diagrams, moments, couples, distributed forces, centroids, moments of inertia, analysis of two-force and multi-force members, and friction and internal forces. Presents economic analysis of engineering alternatives. Studies economic and cost concepts, calculation of economic equivalence, comparison of alternatives, replacement economy, economic optimization in design and operation, depreciation, and after-tax analysis.

Presents approach to kinematics of particles in linear and curvilinear motion. Includes kinematics of rigid bodies in plane motion. Teaches Newton's second law, work-energy and power, impulse and momentum, and problem solving using computers. Teaches concepts of stress, strain, deformation, internal equilibrium, and basic properties of engineering materials.

Analyzes axial loads, torsion, bending, shear, and combined loading. Studies stress transformation and principle stresses, column analysis, and energy principles. Studies formulation of the first and second law of thermodynamics. Presents energy conversion, concepts of energy, temperature, entropy, enthalpy, and equations of state of fluids. Covers reversibility and irreversibility in processes, closed and open systems, cyclical processes, and problem solving using computers.

Teaches fundamentals of electric circuits. Includes circuit quantities of charge, current, potential, power, and energy. Teaches resistive circuit analysis; Ohm's and Kirchoff's laws; nodal and mesh analysis; network theorems; and RC, RL, and RLC circuit transient response with constant forcing functions. Teaches AC steady-state analysis, power, and three-phase circuits. Presents frequency domain analysis, resonance, Fourier series, inductively coupled circuits, Laplace transform applications, and circuit transfer functions.

Introduces problem solving using computers. Teaches principles and operation of laboratory instruments such as VOM, electronic voltmeters, digital multimeters, oscilloscopes, counters, wave generators, and power supplies. Presents application to circuit measurements, including transient and steady-state response of simple networks with laboratory applications of laws and theories of circuits plus measurement of AC quantities.

Focuses on all aspects of pre-hospital basic life support as defined by the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services curriculum for Emergency Medicine Technician.

Includes all aspects of pre-hospital basic life support as defined by the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services curriculum for Emergency Medical Technician. Includes the theory and application of the following: Focuses on the interpretation of basic electrocardiograms ECG and their significance. Includes an overview of anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, including structure, function, and electrical conduction in the heart.

Covers advanced concepts that build on the knowledge and skills of basic dysrhythmia determination and introduction to 12 lead ECG. Includes ALS pharmacology, drug and fluid administration with emphasis on patient assessment, differential diagnosis, and management of multiple medical complaints.

Includes, but not limited to, conditions relating to cardiac, diabetic, neurological, non-traumatic abdominal pain, environmental, behavioral, gynecology, and toxicological disease conditions. Utilizes techniques which will allow the student to utilize the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement the treatment plan for the trauma patient.

Focuses on the assessment and management of specialty patients, including obstetrical, neonates, pediatric, and geriatrics. Begins the first in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals.

Includes, but not limited to, patient care units, such as the Emergency Department, Critical Care units, Pediatric, Labor and Delivery, Operating Room, Trauma Centers, and various advanced life support units.

Continues with the second in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals. Continues with the second in a series of field experiences providing supervised direct patient care in out-of-hospital advanced life support units.

Prepares students for Paramedic certification at the National Registry Level by fulfilling community activism, personal wellness, resource management, ethical considerations in leadership, and research objectives in the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services Paramedic curriculum.

Focuses on the pathological processes of disease with emphasis on the anatomical and physiological alterations of the human body by systems. Includes diagnosis and management appropriate to the advanced health care provider in and out of the hospital environment. Focuses on the principles of normal and abnormal physical exam. Emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of physiological data to assist in patient assessment and management. Applies principles during the assessment and management of trauma, medical, and specialty patients in laboratory environment.

Focuses on the principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug administration. Includes drug legislation, techniques of medication administration, and principles of math calculations. Emphasizes drugs used to manage respiratory, cardiac, neurological, gastrointestinal, fluid and electrolyte, and endocrine disorders and includes classification, mechanism of action, indications, contra-indications, precautions, and patient education.

Incorporates principles related to substance abuse and hazardous materials. Applies principles during the assessment and management of trauma, medical, and specialty patients in a laboratory environment.

Prepares the student in the theory and application of the following: Continues with the third in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals. Continues with the third in a series of field experiences providing supervised direct patient care in out-of-hospital advanced life support units.

Continues as the fourth in a series of clinical experiences providing supervised direct patient contact in appropriate patient care facilities in and out of hospitals. Continues as the fourth in a series of field experiences, providing supervised direct patient care in out-of-hospital advanced life support units. Provides integrated reading and writing instruction for students who require extensive preparation to succeed in college-level English courses.

Students will place into this course based on placement test score. Upon successful completion and faculty recommendation, students will move into Preparing for College English III if they require additional preparation or into college-level English if they require no additional preparation. Credit is not applicable toward graduation.

Provides integrated reading and writing instruction for students who require intermediate preparation to succeed in college-level English courses.

Upon successful completion and faculty recommendation, students will move into Preparing for College Level III if they require additional preparation or into college-level English if they require no additional preparation. Provides integrated reading and writing instruction for students who require minimal preparation for college-level English, but still need some preparation to succeed. Students in this course will be co-enrolled in college-level English.

Helps students to improve spelling and develop vocabulary. Reviews common spelling patterns. Familiarizes the student with basic prefixes, suffixes, root words, and other word formations. Teaches effective use of the dictionary and thesaurus. Stresses recognizing words in reading context and using them effectively in writing.

Introduces students to critical thinking and the fundamentals of academic writing. Through the writing process, students refine topics; develop and support ideas; investigate, evaluate, and incorporate appropriate resources; edit for effective style and usage; and determine appropriate approaches for a variety of contexts, audiences, and purposes.

Writing activities will include exposition and argumentation with at least one researched essay. ENG has been designated as a "writing intensive" course according to standards developed by the English department. Continues to develop college writing with increased emphasis on critical essays, argumentation, and research, developing these competencies through the examination of a range of texts about the human experience.

Requires students to locate, evaluate, integrate, and document sources and effectively edit for style and usage. Successful completion of ENG or its equivalent and the ability to use word processing software; a grade of C or better in ENG is recommended.

Develops ability in technical writing through extensive practice in composing technical reports and other documents. Guides students in achieving voice, tone, style, and content appropriate to a specific audience and purpose. Includes instruction in formatting, editing, and graphics. Introduces students to technical discourse through selected reading. Provides instruction and practice in basic principles of oral presentation. Covers content, form, and procedures for research writings, which may include reports, articles, summaries, essays, and correspondence.

Stresses editing, proofreading skills, sentence structure, and paragraph development. Offers instruction and practice in oral communication skills.

May use reading selections for discussions and writing assignments. Helps students refine skills in writing non-fiction prose. Guides students in the development of individual voice and style. ENG with a grade of "C" or better or approval by the English department head. Introduces, in a workshop setting, the fundamentals and techniques of writing short and long fiction. Introduces, in a workshop setting, the fundamentals and techniques of writing poetry. Provides an introduction to the study of the Bible as literature.

Examines the intent and presentation of major literary genres found in the Bible, refining skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Involves critical reading and writing. Examines American literary works from pre-colonial times through the mid-nineteenth century, emphasizing the ideas and characteristics of our national literature. ENG and may be taken out of order. Examines selected American literary works from the late-nineteenth century to the present, emphasizing the ideas and characteristics of our national literature.

Studies major English texts from the Anglo-Saxon period to the 18th century, emphasizing the ideas and characteristics of the British literary tradition. Studies major English works from the Romantics to the present, emphasizing the ideas and characteristics of the British literary tradition.

Surveys the history, development, and genres of children's literature, focusing on analysis of texts for literary qualities and in terms of audience. Examines major works of world literature from the ancient period to the early 17th century. Examines major works of world literature from the 17th century to the present era. Examines selected works by African-American writers from the colonial period to the early 20th century.

Examines literature by and about women prior to Examines literature by and about women from about to the present. Focuses on the writers of American Romanticism and the diaries, novels, journals, poetry, letters, and dispatches that grew from their engagement with Italy.

Provides students with an understanding of American Romanticism through its encounter with Italy, and students will engage these elements themselves in Venice, Padua, Florence, Rome, Naples, Pompeii, and Sorrento. This course will be inter-disciplinary, exploring Italian art, architecture, history, music, language, and culture. Introduces chemical principles and applies them to environmental issues.

Covers the fundamental principles, concepts, and language of general, organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Laboratories will include sampling, analysis, and generation of statistically-valid data while preparing students to think like environmental scientists. Provides intensive instruction and practice at the low intermediate level. Provides an introduction to the sound system, stress, and intonational and rhythmic patterns of English through listening and speaking exercises.

Includes individualized instruction to improve basic reading comprehension. Requires practice in writing with emphasis on building basic sentence structures, grammar, and sentence-level writing. Credits are not applicable toward graduation. Provides instruction and practice in the writing process, emphasizing development of fluency in writing and competence in structural and grammatical patterns of written English.

Recommendation of department following satisfactory completion of ESL 20 or appropriate placement test. Helps students improve their reading comprehension and vocabulary development. Improves students' reading proficiency to a level which would allow the students to function adequately in ESL Helps students practice and improve listening and speaking skills as needed for functioning successfully in academic, professional, and personal settings.

Assesses students' oral skills and includes, as needed, practice with pronunciation, rhythm, stress, and intonation.

Provides exercises, practices, small and large group activities, and oral presentations to help students overcome problems in oral communication. Provides instruction and practice in the use of intermediate-level academic English grammar structures, including verb tenses, parts of speech, and basic sentence structure. Helps ESL students assess their own knowledge of English grammar, improve accuracy, and learn methods to improve editing.

Provides further instruction and practice in the writing process and introduces advanced language patterns. Includes practice in developing and improving writing strategies. Recommendation of department following satisfactory completion of intermediate ESL 31 or appropriate placement test.

Helps students improve their reading comprehension and vocabulary. Improves students' reading proficiency to a level which would allow the students to function adequately in ESL 52 and some academic college classes.

Recommendation of department following satisfactory completion of ESL 32 or appropriate placement test. Provides further instruction and practice in helping students to improve listening and speaking skills. Emphasizes the development of fluency through exercises, practices, small and large group activities, and formal and informal presentations. Provides practice in note-taking. Provides instruction and practice in the use of high intermediate and advanced academic English grammar structures, including advanced verb forms, clauses, determiners, and prepositions.

Prepares for college-level writing by practice in the writing process with emphasis on development of thought in essays of greater length and complexity and use of appropriate syntax and diction. Recommendation of department following satisfactory completion of ESL 41 or appropriate placement test and completion of ESL Emphasizes applying and synthesizing ideas.

Includes ways to detect organization, summarize, make inferences, draw conclusions, evaluate generalizations, recognize differences between facts and opinions, and introduces other advanced comprehension strategies.

May also include comprehensive library skills. Satisfactory completion of ESL 41 and 42 or appropriate placement test. Provides an intensive writing seminar for students struggling with the writing process, editing, and self-correction in academic English.

Helps students improve their fluency and command of American academic English. Provides individualized instruction and practice in sound-letter correspondences. Introduces students to basic spelling rules, word division, prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Helps students master vocabulary through an understanding of homonyms, confusing words, and Greek and Latin roots.

Stresses using words in context. Focuses on problems of American English pronunciation, unclear individual sounds, positional variants, stress, and rhythm and intonation common to speakers of different language backgrounds.

Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario $50,000