1. Peanut butter and jelly protein shake
Curr Med Res Opin. Seances Soc Biol Fil. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Tokyo ;36 Suppl 2: Immune modulation in suckling rat pups by a growth factor extract derived from milk whey. Structure modification of a milk protein-based model food affects postprandial intestinal peptide release and fullness in healthy young men.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ;9: Effect of whey protein hydrolysate on performance and recovery of top-class orienteering runners. Whey protein supplementation preserves postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis during short-term energy restriction in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr ; 2: Resistance training-induced elevations in muscular strength in trained men are maintained after 2 weeks of detraining and not differentially affected by whey protein supplementation.
J Strength Cond Res. Incretin, insulinotropic and glucose-lowering effects of whey protein pre-load in type 2 diabetes: Diabetologia ; 57 9: The use of a whey protein concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma: The effect of meal replacements high in glycomacropeptide on weight loss and markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr ;87 6: Effect of glycomacropeptide fractions on cholecystokinin and food intake.
Br J Nutr ; 2: The effect of a whey protein supplement on bone mass in older Caucasian adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 6: Effect of vitamin E on the anticoagulant response to warfarin. Am J Cardiol ; The influence of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on satiety in adult humans.
Physiol Behav ;96 1: Anaphylaxis in a milk-allergic child following ingestion of lemon sorbet containing trace quantities of milk. J Food Prot ; Whey protein supplementation enhances body fat and weight loss in women long after bariatric surgery: The effect of a whey protein supplement dose on satiety and food intake in resistance training athletes. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: J Am Coll Nutr.
Unique hydrolyzed whey protein isolates with antihypertensive activity. Isolation of substances from glossy privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Dietary milk proteins inhibit the development of dimethylhydrazine-induced malignancy. Human insulinotropic response to oral ingrestion of native and hydrolysed whey protrein. Coronary thrombosis in three coronary arteries due to whey protein. Am J Emerg Med. An elemental diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and enzymatically hydrolyzed protein can improve gastrointestinal tolerance in people infected with HIV.
J Am Diet Assoc ; Cycling time trial performance may be impaired by whey protein and L-alanine intake during prolonged exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. OsoLean Open Nutraceuticals J Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: An experimental and clinical evaluation. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men. Nutr Res ; 34 Minimal whey protain with carbohydrate stimulates muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise in trained young men.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: J Appl Physiol ; Eight weeks of pre- and postexercise whey protein supplementation increases lean body mass and improves performance in Division III collegiate female basketball players.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Biochemical and clinical effects of whey protein supplementation in Parkinson's disease: Effect of a whey hydrolysate prophylaxis of atopic disease. Effects of complete whey-protein breakfasts versus whey without GMP-breakfasts on energy intake and satiety. A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: Am J Clin Nutr ; 2: Cholestatic jaundice as a result of combination designer supplement ingestion.
Ann Pharmacother ;47 Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. J Am Coll Nutr ;32 2: Management of HIV-related weight loss and diarrhea with an enteral formula containing whey peptides and medium-chain triglycerides. Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 99 1: Influence of whey and purified whey proteins on neutrophil functions in sheep. J Dairy Res ; Immunomodulatory effects of dietary whey proteins in mice. Whey protein supplementation and higher total protein intake do not influence bone quantity in overweight and obese adults following a week exercise and diet intervention.
Two-year whey protein supplementation did not enhance muscle mass and physical function in well-nourished healthy older postmenopausal women. Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starter. Protein choices targeting thermogenesis and metabolism. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body cell mass, muscle strength, and quality of life in women with HIV. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition and muscle strength in women with HIV infection.
Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake. Lond ; View abstract. Effect of premeal consumption of whey protein and its hydrolysate on food intake and postmeal glycemia and insulin responses in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr ;91 4: Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.
Nutr Res ;31 2: Effects of protein quality on appetite and energy metabolism in normal weight subjects. In vitro studies of the digestion of caprine whey proteins by human gastric and duodenal juice and the effects on selected microorganisms.
Br J Nutr ;96 3: Plasma disposition kinetics of albendazole metabolites in pigs fed different diets. Protein source, quantity, and time of consumption determine the effect of proteins on short-term food intake in young men.
Whey protein ingestion enhances postprandial anabolism during short-term bed rest in young men. A controlled trial of the effect of milk basic protein MBP supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy menopausal women.
Controlled trial of the effects of milk basic protein MBP supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy adult women. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.
Dose-response effect of a whey protein preload on within-day energy intake in lean subjects. Br J Nutr ; Muscle full effect after oral protein: Am J Clin Nutr ;92 5: Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults.
Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: Acute effects of ingestion of a novel whey-derived extract on vascular endothelial function in overweight, middle-aged men and women.
J Nutr ; 5: Emerging health properties of fermented milk and whey proteins: Role in Helicobacter pylori eradication. Effects of cysteine donor supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Antioxidant activity of whey protein fractions isolated by gel exclusion chromatography and protease treatment.
Anti-inflammatory potential of a malleable matrix composed of fermented whey proteins and lactic acid bacteria in an atopic dermatitis model.
Inhibition of neutrophil infiltration by a malleable protein matrix of lactic acid bacteria-fermented whey proteins in vivo. Regulatory function of a malleable protein matrix as a novel fermented whey product on features defining the metabolic syndrome. The Canadian asthma primary prevention study: A comparison of short-term appetite and energy intakes in normal weight and obese boys following glucose and whey-protein drinks. Effect of short-duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys.
The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men.
J Nutr Health Aging. Effect of protein ingestion on energy expenditure and substrate utilization after exercise in middle-aged women. Impact of early feeding on childhood eczema: The whey fermentation product malleable protein matrix decreases triglyceride concentrations in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: J Dairy Sci ;94 2: Systemic indices of skeletal muscle damage and recovery of muscle function after exercise: Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ;34 4: Increased carbohydrate oxidation after ingesting carbohydrate with added protein.
The influence of carbohydrate and protein ingestion during recovery from prolonged exercise on subsequent endurance performance. J Sports Sci ;25 Dietary protein-induced increases in urinary calcium are accompanied by similar increases in urinary nitrogen and urinary urea: Similar effects of leucine rich and regular dairy products on muscle mass and functions of older polymyalgia rheumatica patients: J Nutr Health Aging ;15 6: Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage.
The clinical effect of a new infant formula in term infants with constipation: Continuous hydrolysis of goat whey in an ultrafiltration reactor: Effect of an amino acid, protein, and carbohydrate mixture on net muscle protein balance after resistance exercise.
Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patients. Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages.
Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. Energy intake, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin after different carbohydrate and protein preloads in overweight men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ;91 4: Can farm milk consumption prevent allergic diseases? The influence of carbohydrate-protein co-ingestion following endurance exercise on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis.
J Physiol ; Pt Soy versus whey protein bars: The effect of protein composition in liquid meals on gastric emptying rate in children with cerebral palsy. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise. J Sci Med Sport ;13 1: The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Int J Sport Nutr. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans.
J Nutr ;43 3: Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing. Absorption of a new semielemental diet in infants with cystic fibrosis. Enteral Nutr ;33 4: Influence of ingesting casein protein and whey carbohydrate beverages on recovery and performance of an endurance cycling test.
Use of hypoallergenic formula in the prevention of atopic disease among Asian children. Child Health ;38 1: A randomized controlled study on the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention program in the primary prevention of asthma in high-risk infants.
Children successfully treated for moderate acute malnutrition remain at risk for malnutrition and death in the subsequent year after recovery. Short term effects on bone quality associated with consumption of soy protein isolate and other dietary protein sources in rapidly growing female rats. Immunogenicity and antigenicity of a partially hydrolyzed cow's milk infant formula. Open-labeled pilot study of cysteine-rich whey protein isolate supplementation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients.
Interaction of dietary protein, cholesterol and age on lipid metabolism of the rat. Br J Nutr ;61 3: Dietary fats modulate age-dependent effects of dietary proteins on cholesterol metabolism in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. Tokyo ;36 Suppl 2: The combined effects of dietary proteins and fish oil on cholesterol metabolism in rats of different ages. Effect of a week strength training program and recovery drink on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power and capacity.
FDA's health claim review: Effect of time of consumption of preloads on measures of satiety in healthy normal weight women. J Clin Nutr ;63 1: Glucagon and insulin responses after ingestion of different amounts of intact and hydrolysed proteins.
Br J Nutr ; 1: The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. Characterization of major radical scavenger species in bovine milk through size exclusion chromatography and functional assays.
Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during eight weeks of unilateral resistance training. Nutrient provision increases signalling and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle after repeated sprints. Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training.
Results of a follow-up study]. Pediatr Med Chir ;18 5: The rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humans. J Physiol ; Pt 2: Pediatr Med Chir ;16 3: Peptides from water buffalo cheese whey induced senescence cell death via ceramide secretion in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.
Nutr Food Res ; View abstract. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Ann Nutr Metab ;44 1: Bovine antibody-based oral immunotherapy for reduction of intragastric Helicobacter pylori colonization: Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ;6: Muscle protein synthesis in cancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medical food. Clin Nutr ;30 6: XPL Dermylex , a new whey protein extract with potential benefit for mild to moderate psoriasis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol ;85 9: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.
In vitro and in vivo safety studies of a proprietary whey extract. Effect of soy- and whey protein-isolate supplemented diet on the redox parameters of trained mice. J Nutr ;45 5: The effects of creatine and whey protein supplementation on body composition in men aged 48 to 72 years during resistance training. It can be found in some multivitamins , vegan and vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids, such as algal oil supplements , nutrition bars and protein drinks.
It was also an ingredient in one cocoa product tested by ConsumerLab. Food-grade carrageenan is considered safe by most regulatory agencies; however, some researchers who study carrageenan have raised concerns that carrageenan may be carcinogenic and cause inflammatory reactions.
Immunocal is much more expensive than other whey protein isolates - is it worth the extra cost? However, Immunocal costs up to five times as much as other whey protein isolates, and there is not enough evidence to suggest it provides an advantage over less expensive brands.
I've heard that rice has high levels of arsenic. Does that mean rice bran oil does too? Some rice and products made from rice, like rice cakes, flour and cereals, have been found to contain a considerable amount of the heavy metal arsenic - although only a few exceeded the cancer-warning threshold of the State of California 10 mcg per daily serving. Although arsenic can also occur in rice bran oil, it is believed to occur in much lower concentrations than in whole rice. One study of products in Japan found that rice bran oil contained only trace amounts of arsenic that were not of concern 0.
These findings suggest that arsenic is not as easily taken up into the oily portion of rice as it is into other parts of the grain. It should also be kept in mind that rice bran oil is typically consumed in much smaller amounts than products made from whole rice products. When choosing a protein powder, which protein source is best -- whey, casein, soy, pea, rice or egg?
As discussed in more detail in our Protein Powders and Drinks Review , each of these can be a good source of protein, but certain protein sources may be better for particular uses and in certain people. Whey protein contains the highest percentage of branched-chain amino acids, which can become depleted during exercise and are needed for maintenance of muscle.
However, some studies have found rice protein and pea protein equal to whey in increasing strength and muscle when taken after resistance exercise. Casein is absorbed more slowly than whey and, for this reason, some athletes take it before bed to help counter protein breakdown.
Soy protein can lower cholesterol levels and may have other heart health benefits. Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have been found in protein powders. Typically, these have been at very low levels — below limits for safe use. When higher amounts have been found, it has been associated with added, non-protein ingredients such as cocoa powder a source of cadmium or bran from rice.
Specific sources of protein should be avoided due to potential allergic reactions, food sensitivities, and medical conditions e. It is also important to understand differences in the forms of protein, such as concentrates, isolates, and hydrolysates. Do glutathione supplements work to prevent aging or for other conditions?
Although glutathione plays an important role in the body as an antioxidant, supplementing with glutathione has not been shown to slow aging or help with conditions associated with reduced levels of glutathione, such as cancer, cataracts, diabetes, and HIV infection.
Glutathione is a protein normally made in the body from three amino acids: We get small amounts of glutathione from foods, and this is normally broken back down to amino acids by enzymes in the digestive tract. As discussed in the Glutathione article on ConsumerLab. However, a study in which large amounts of glutathione were given daily for six months did show an increase in glutathione levels.
Nevertheless, there are no studies showing a clinical benefit on any disease or medical condition from taking glutathione supplements. For more information, see the Glutathione article on ConsumerLab. Also see answers to the following questions: What is the best protein supplement for vegetarians and vegans?
As discussed in our review of protein powders , two very good sources of protein — whey and casein protein — are both derived from milk, so products that contain these may be suitable for vegetarians but not for vegans. Whey and casein are both complete proteins, meaning that they contain all of the essential amino acids. Whey protein is particularly high in branched-chain amino acids, which are important to replenish after exercise and are needed for maintaining muscle.
If you prefer plant-based protein or are vegan, protein powders made from soy, rice, pea and hemp, or a mix of these sources, can be good choices.
Soy protein is a complete protein, and is considered the most "heart healthy" -- but should not be taken if you have a soy allergy or thyroid condition. Rice and pea proteins can also provide all of the essential amino acids, and some studies have found them to be equal to whey in increasing strength and muscle when taken after resistance exercise. Hemp can also provide all of the essential amino acids, and is particularly high in the branched-chain amino acid arginine, although there is little research on its use for muscle building or sports recovery.
Be aware that although these plant-based proteins provide all the essential amino acids, the ratios of these vary by protein source.
Consequently, it's generally recommended that a mixture of sources be used, such as combining a grain-based protein, like rice, with a legume-based protein like pea protein. Arsenic contamination is a concern in rice-based products -- see the Warning and Quality Concerns for more about this; however, ConsumerLab.
See the ConsumerTips section of the Protein Powders Review for more about these different types of protein. Also see our Top Picks among supplements made from each protein source. To be sure a protein supplement does not contain any added ingredients which are non-vegetarian or non-vegan ingredients, you can check the full Ingredients List provided for each protein supplement tested by ConsumerLab.
Which supplements can help lower or control my blood sugar? Many different supplements may help lower or control blood sugar in people with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes who experience hyperglycemia when blood glucose rises higher than normal.
These supplements are discussed below. More details about each, including dosage, drug interactions, potential side effects, and ConsumerLab. Due to the seriousness of hyperglycemia, it is important to consult with your physician regarding use of these supplements. Cinnamon supplements may modestly improve blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes whose blood sugar is not well controlled with medication. Keep in mind, however, that only certain varieties of cinnamon have been shown to have this effect, and long-term safety studies have not been conducted.
Curcumin from turmeric may improve blood sugar levels, according to preliminary studies, and one study found curcumin to dramatically lower the chances of prediabetes in middle-aged, slightly overweight men and women with somewhat higher than normal blood sugar levels. Alpha lipoic acid may improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes, although it may only slightly reduce levels of glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c.
Chromium picolinate may help some people with type 2 diabetes decrease fasting blood glucose levels as well as levels of insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c. Add protein powders such as whey protein or soy protein to make your shake a satiating meal replacement or substantial snack. Peanut butter or other nut butters are a great low-carbohydrate addition and a good source of heart-healthy fats.
Use dairy products for moisture in your shake, such as low-fat, low-sugar yogurt or low-fat milk. Choose plain or vanilla yogurt to limit added sugar. The multitude of diabetic-friendly Greek yogurts available can offer a higher protein addition.
Look for the words "no sugar added," "carb control" or "light" on the label of your favorite yogurt. Choose whole fruits instead of fruit juice in your shake to add fiber and bulk. Be mindful of the quantity and portion of fruits you use because the natural sugar in fruit can contribute to a rise in blood sugar.
One medium banana provides 27 grams of carbohydrate and will give a thicker texture to your shake when blended. Using frozen fruit instead of ice will increase the nutrient density of your frozen treat or meal. A cup of frozen strawberries provides 13 grams of carbohydrate and 3 grams of dietary fiber.