Comparative Digestion

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Reptile Care
Their tracheal extension sticks out like a fleshy straw, and allows these animals to swallow large prey without suffering from asphyxiation. Simply provide a water bowl. All snakes are strictly carnivorous , eating small animals including lizards, frogs, other snakes, small mammals, birds, eggs , fish, snails or insects. Personally, I think it is alway best to feed an animal food they are designed to eat. In large reptiles, like leatherback turtles , the low surface-to-volume ratio allows this metabolically produced heat to keep the animals warmer than their environment even though they do not have a warm-blooded metabolism. Unlike Amphibians, Reptiles do not go through metamorphosis in order to develop into adults. Difficulty raising body off ground for legged species?

Identification

Dog's Digestive System

Todas las serpientes venenosas australianas pertenecen a este grupo. Las serpientes de coral poseen sus vivos colores de advertencia ya que son muy venenosas aposematismo , entre los que predominan amarillo, rojo y negro; no son muy peligrosas para el hombre ya que son de pequeño tamaño y abren poco la boca, lo que hace difícil que puedan morder.

El veneno tiene una acción principalmente hemolítica. La cabeza es triangular y ancha, y los ojos tienen la pupila vertical. La mayoría retienen los huevos que contienen a las crías en el interior del cuerpo alumbrando a las crías tras la eclosión de los huevos desde el interior del cuerpo, es decir, son ovovivíparas. Todas las serpientes pertenecen al clado Serpentes, que a su vez es miembro del orden Squamata.

El suborden Serpientes se subdivide en dos infraórdenes y 25 familias: Recientes estudios moleculares corroboran la monofilia del clado Serpentes y de los infraórdenes Scolecophidia y Alethinophidia. Este relato bíblico ha inspirado a la Iglesia católica a representar la Virgen María como la Inmaculada Concepción pisando a una serpiente tal como relata el génesis, pero el reptil en vez de morderle el talón solo lleva una manzana en su boca. En algunos casos también se han representado a Jesucristo pisando una serpiente, pero no inspirado en el génesis de la Biblia sino como una representación de lucha entre el bien y del mal , lo cual esta simbología también puede aplicarse al caso de la Virgen María.

De acuerdo a esta historia, se interpreta que Dios a través de Moisés demostraba su furia contra el pueblo egipcio frente al Faraón. En esto algunos teólogos consideran que el bastón de Moisés, conocido como la vara de Moisés , es una serpiente de aspecto positivo o a la vez milagroso.

Representaba la fuerza del crecimiento, la fertilidad del suelo y de las aguas en la mitología egipcia. Era la diosa protectora del Bajo Egipto y del faraón. Sin embargo, la serpiente Apofis eran el símbolo de las fuerzas maléficas que habitan el Duat , e intentaba retener la barca solar de Ra.

En el Próximo Oriente Antiguo se consideraba a la serpiente un animal de vida larga, benefactor y sanador, de ahí el emblema del caduceo. En el Lejano Oriente la serpiente es considerado un animal sagrado, divino y protector contra las energías negativas, que representa fuerza, energía y sabiduría. Por ejemplo en el cristianismo, el Espíritu Santo es representado como una paloma blanca, pero aquí, el Dios Siva , es representado como una serpiente, en una cobra.

La cultura China la considera también una entidad protectora; un ejemplo de ello lo encontramos en la Gran Muralla China construida sobre un terreno montañoso y ubicada en el centro de color amarillo. También ha sido representada a la par del Dragón , como un símbolo de algunas artes marciales orientales.

En este animal, se han inspirado los diferentes métodos de defensa personal en la China milenaria, principalmente creadas y rescatadas por maestros o senseis o artistas marciales. De igual forma, en América han sido veneradas por gran parte de las culturas que allí florecieron.

En Sudamérica existe la figura mítica del Amaru o serpiente alada, deidad muy antigua y de gran trascendencia en la cosmovisión de los pueblos Quechua y Aymara. En la antigua Roma, el dios Esculapio dios de la medicina adoptaba forma de serpiente, lo que le ha dado nombre a la serpiente de Esculapio. En este caso las serpientes también eran veneradas. El basilisco es representado en algunas culturas como una gran serpiente con una mancha en la cabeza con forma de corona que con la mirada, si es directa, es capaz de matar y, si es indirecta, petrifica.

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Rattlesnakes, like other snakes, periodically shed their skin. When the new skin underneath is formed, the snake rubs its snout against a stone, twig, or rough surface until a hole is worn through. After it works its head free, the snake contracts its muscles rhythmically, pushing, pulling, and rubbing, until it can crawl out of the old skin, which peels off like an inverted stocking.

Each molt produces a new rattle. Some rattles usually break off from older snakes. Even if no rattles have been lost, they do not indicate exact age because several rattles may be produced in one season. Even though the optimum temperature for rattlesnakes is around 77 o to 89 o F 25 o to 32 o C , the greatest period of activity is spring, when they come out of hibernation and are seeking food.

If lizards are active, be alert for rattlesnakes. The activity period for rattlers can vary from about 10 months or so in warm southern regions to perhaps less than 5 months in the north and at high elevations. Depending upon availability of good, dry denning sites below the frost line, rattlesnakes may hibernate alone or in small numbers.

If not, the snakes might emerge too early in spring only to become sluggish and vulnerable should the weather again turn cold. Since snakes are cold-blooded animals and their body temperature is altered by air temperature, refrigeration makes them sluggish and easy to handle for displaying.

Rattlesnakes usually see humans before humans see them, or they detect soil vibrations made by walking. They coil for protection, but they can strike only from a third to a half of their body length. Rattlers rely on surprise to strike prey. Once a prey has been struck, but not killed, it is unlikely that it will be struck again. Experienced rodents and dogs can evade rattlesnake strikes.

Rattlesnakes may appear quite aggressive if exposed to warm sunshine. Since they have no effective cooling mechanism, they may die from heat stroke if kept in the sun on a hot day much longer than 15 or 20 minutes.

If a rattlesnake has just been killed by cutting off its head, it can still bare its fangs and bite. The heat sensory pits will still be functioning, and the warmth of a hand will activate the striking reflex. The head cannot strike, but it can bite and inflict venom. The reflex no longer exists after a few minutes, or as long as an hour or more if it is cool, as rigor mortis sets in.

The greatest danger to humans from rattlesnakes is that small children may be struck while rolling and tumbling in the grass. Only about 1, people are bitten and less than a dozen people die from rattlesnake venom each year in the United States. Nevertheless, it is a most unpleasant experience to be struck. When known to be abundant, rattlesnakes detract from the enjoyment of outdoor activities. The human fear of rattlesnakes is much greater than the hazard, however, and many harmless snakes inadvertently get killed as a result.

Death from a rattlesnake bite is rare and the chance of being bitten in the field is extremely small. Experienced livestock operators and farmers usually can identify rattlesnake bites on people or on livestock without much difficulty, even if they did not witness the strike.

A rattlesnake bite results in almost immediate swelling, darkening of tissue to a dark blue-black color, a tingling sensation, and nausea. Bites will also reveal two fang marks in addition to other teeth marks all snakes have teeth; only pit vipers have fangs too.

Rattlesnakes often bite livestock on the nose or head as the animals attempt to investigate them. Sheep, in particular, may crowd together in shaded areas near water during midday. As a consequence, they also frequently are bitten on the legs or lower body when pushed close to snakes. Fang marks and tissue discoloration that follows in the major blood vessels from the bite area are usually apparent on livestock that are bitten see Wade and Bowns , pages 32 and 34 in the Damage Identification section of this book.

Most species of rattlesnakes are not considered threatened or endangered. Since they are potentially dangerous, there has not been much support for protecting them except in national parks and preserves.

However, since there are state and local restrictions, contact local wildlife agencies for more information. An occasional single poisonous snake can be destroyed if one has enough determination. In areas where the habitat is favorable for rattlesnakes, copperheads, or water moccasins, a significant reduction in their population density may be difficult.

The fencing must be tight. Bury the bottom 3 or 4 inches 8 or 10 cm or bend outward 3 or more inches of the base of the wire to discourage other animals from digging under the fence. Put the stakes on the inside and install a gate that is tight-fitting at the sides and bottom, equipped with a self-closing spring. The benefit of the fence will be lost if wood, junk, or thick vegetation accumulates against the outside of the fence.

Vegetation that has ground-level foliage also provides attractive hiding places for rattlesnakes, so it should be removed or properly pruned.

Tight-fitting doors will prevent snakes from entering outbuildings. Many potential snake repellents have been researched, only to be found ineffective. All species of snakes are likely to cross a strip of repellent substance if they want to get to the other side. A Y-shaped laboratory enclosure that provided rattlers with a choice of crawling into a tunnel with odor or one free of odor showed they usually chose the passage free of odor.

No field test data is available. To be of practical use, the odor of a snake repellent must not be too objectionable to people. No effective toxicant is registered for the control of rattlesnakes. When rodents were poisoned with various rodenticides and then fed to rattlesnakes, the snakes were not affected.

Apparently, digestion is too slow for the toxicants to have an effect on snakes. It may be possible to kill rattlesnakes in burrows and rock dens with toxic gas, although this is not a very practical method. Calcium cyanide is a chemical frequently recommended, but no lethal gas has had good success because snakes have such a slow rate of metabolism, especially when in hibernation.

In addition, susceptible nontarget species in the burrows or dens may become victims. In the spring and early summer, when hibernating snakes are about to emerge, gasoline poured down a burrow or into a den will drive the snakes out.

As the snakes exit they can be clubbed, shot, or captured alive with snake tongs that secure a snake at its neck. If transported in a bag, tie the top securely. Many snake hunters push a hose down a burrow and after listening to confirm that rattlesnakes are present, pour 1 to 2 ounces 30 to 60 ml of gasoline into a funnel on the hose and then blow on the hose.

This technique seems quite effective for seasonally reducing rattlesnake numbers, but it may be lethal to nontarget animals including nonpoisonous and beneficial snakes. To be effective, community- wide campaigns should extend over several days, since many snakes may escape into holes or crevices.

Snake hunters should wear protective clothing such as pants, heavy gloves, and boots. Various combinations of fencing and traps at known rattlesnake dens can be very successful if one is trying to collect rattlesnakes, because in some localities several hundred rattlesnakes may occupy the same den.

If all but one opening can be blocked, it is then quite simple to pipe or otherwise channel the emerging rattlesnakes into a large oil drum or other receptacle. The inward sloping funnel makes it difficult for the snakes to escape. If a wooden nestbox is attached to one side of these traps, the snakes will usually hide in the box and not spend as much time trying to escape. Sometimes its undigested food, sometimes its white stuff…. Everything else about her seems fine.

Gums are red, eyes are fine, personality is normal. She was, for a few weeks feed bread, by neighbor who was dog sitting…He meant no harm…but…bread is bad for dogs digestive systems, yes?

Hi Grace, I came in search of a possible solution to help my pup gain some weight and stumbled upon your question. The symptoms of your gal match the symptoms of the condition that my 10 month old pup is afflicted with.

Another form of it is neurological. The nerves that tell the muscles of the esophagus to move food down cease to do so. I have to liquify my pups food and feed him on stairs so that gravity can help get his food into his stomach, but otherwise he leads a very normal life. I started feeding her boiled chicken and rice and my once very fussy eater gobbled it up. Blood is gone, stools are becoming more solid. I want to try one of your diets — not sure if it should be raw or cooked; I want to stick to chicken at least at first because of the colitis.

Also, what about switching between chicken and beef — can you do that, or do you have to do the 24 hour fast? Switching between homemade dog food recipes does not require a fast. I just posted a chicken and rice dog food recipe that may work for you. Any other advice to make her more healthy and have more normal stools would be appreciated.

Linda PS Sadie says thanks for the delicious recipe — no more fussy eating! I feed him a liquid diet in an upright position 4 times per day and he gets LOTS of exercise. Thank you very much for your time and possible advice. You may want to try the chicken and rice dog food recipe. Pass this through a blender and it should be ok. Dogs metabolize fat well. High carbohydrate content in kibble seem to be more responsible for weight gain. I have just start my research about raw foods.

I have a 5 year old Great Pyrenees who is having difficulties having bowel movements. I have taken him to the vet multiple times and after many enemas and laxatives he seemed fine. However, they have told us to start putting metamucil on his food regularly as he would not eat the high fiber diet we started putting him on. This worked for a couple of weeks, now he is back to the way he was backed up and we have to give him more laxatives. Someone mentioned to me that raw food may help with his digestion.

Poor boy is in pain. Is the raw food diet good for this sort of thing? Thanks for your time. Have you ever tried probiotics to help his digestive tract?

Yes, I started giving it to him when he started having problems. He is still having difficulties. I have been reading more about the raw food diet and I am becoming more nervous about it. I read how if your not balancing the meals appropriately then you can cause more problems.

Its so hard to tell what is legit. I will keep researching before I switch over. If I find anything I will also update you. If you are nervous about feeding raw dog food then just feed him cooked.

Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe. Your dog will love either and both are very nutritious. This is my first time on your website and I love that easy recipe with the eggshell and all!

Now I put the used eggshell in my stale bread, cracker mix for the birds as they need it for digestion but I never thught you could do that for dogs. Thanks for letting other animal lovers know about the positive benefits of a natural food diet for our beloved pets.

I mean really, if the commercial dog food is all that great and healthy then why does it say NOT fit for human consumption? Hmmm, now I have an issue with that! Treat our furry critters as we want to be treated also! Thank you so much and my 3 APBT just love their natural food fare! They whine like your 2 didin the video but they are so healthy and happy and just full of energy.

Yes they love fish especially salmon. What a life they have! God Bless you and yours. I have an 8 month old Cavachon. She started having diarrhea here and there about 6 weeks ago.

We had her poop tested at the vet but no parasites. She had been eating Diamond Puppy. We switched to chicken and rice and diarrhea got better.

Interesting note, on chicken and rice, she no longer ate her poop. Whenever we tried to put her back on Diamond Puppy, diarrhea would come back. So, back to chicken and rice. During that time, she ate part of a yard ornament and was given meds to make her vomit. After that, she had diarrhea even staying on chicken and rice. The vet gave her antidiarrheal meds for 10 days and it finally went away. Meanwhile, she was still on only chicken and rice. After several days with nodiarrhea, I tried to give her a little Diamond Puppy again mixed in with chicken and rice and it started to come back again.

I came across your cooked dog food recipe. I ordered Dinovite and Licochops. Before making the full recipe, I gave her a little Dinovite in her chicken and rice for the past 3 days. Her diarrhea is back. I also caught her trying to eat her poop again.

Not sure if there is something in the Dinovite that makes her want to eat her poop. I am currently making your cooked dog food recipe, but want to know your opinion on how to proceed since she will be starting while she already has some intestinal upset. Other than the diarrhea , she is acting happy and healthy. Is her diarrhea watery or is she just having frequent softer stools?

I would try her on the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe and follow the introductory methods. Then give her system time to adjust. She loves sweets and breads. She constantly has stomach issues. I give her a puppy multivitamin and she eats grass daily. She gets treats that have no artificial flavors, colors or preserves. What I want to know is if there is anything else I can do to help her with the stomach issues. Any info would be greatly appreciated.

Try the easy cooked dog food recipe or the chicken and rice dog food recipe and see how she does. I have a MinPin, Grace, whom is 2 years old. She is absolutely our baby. Sometime in November, I was cutting the red ring off of our bologna.

I laid the small ring of paper on my table, and Grace ate the red paper. I have not seen her poop out the paper. Can she actually digest this paper or should I take her to the vet?

I certainly do not want her to go through surgery, yet, I cannot stand to lose her.

Herbivores