Your Guide to the Female Reproductive System

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Male Reproductive

As the follicular phase progresses, one follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and continues to mature. This dominant follicle suppresses all of the other follicles in the group. As a result, they stop growing and die. The dominant follicle continues to produce estrogen. Ovulatory Phase of the Menstrual Cycle The ovulatory phase, or ovulation , starts about 14 days after the follicular phase started.

During this phase, the following events occur: The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced by the brain. This causes the dominant follicle to release its egg from the ovary. As the egg is released a process called ovulation , it is captured by finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes fimbriae. The fimbriae sweep the egg into the tube.

Also during this phase, there is an increase in the amount and thickness of mucus produced by the cervix lower part of the uterus. If a woman were to have intercourse during this time, the thick mucus captures the man's sperm, nourishes it, and helps it to move towards the egg for fertilization. Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle begins right after ovulation and involves the following processes: Once it releases its egg, the empty follicle develops into a new structure called the corpus luteum.

The corpus luteum secretes the hormone progesterone. Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg to implant. If intercourse has taken place and a man's sperm has fertilized the egg a process called conception , the fertilized egg embryo will travel through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus.

The woman is now considered pregnant. If the egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus. Not needed to support a pregnancy, the lining of the uterus breaks down and sheds, and the next menstrual period begins. The hormone prolactin is needed to stop the egg laying cycle in a female cockatiel. When the first egg is laid, her level of prolactin is low. The level will increase with each additional egg laid and the amount of time she nests on the eggs. Vol 2, Number 3.

The University of California also reported that clutch size is influenced by hormones and that clutch size can be controlled to a certain extent. If one egg is removed from the female' s nest, 1 additional egg will be laid, increasing the clutch size.

If 1 additional egg is placed in the nest each time the female lays an egg, clutch size is reduced by 1 egg. Nesting on eggs is both physically and psychologically stressful for your bird and any type of stress impairs the immune system. Sometimes females that are nesting on eggs are reluctant to move out of the nest to eat food, drink water and exercise.

Keep an extra set of food and water dishes close to your bird. Females that are laying eggs will also lose calcium. Provide plenty of extra calcium in her diet from fresh, dark green vegetables such as kale, cilantro, parsley, beet greens, turnip greens, endive, chard, mustard greens, watercress, broccoli leaves and stalks.

Birds that are not eating pellets need this type of lighting in order to metabolize calcium. It's normal for your bird to be more aggressive with your during while nesting. She'd doing her job and protecting her nest. When the eggs are eventually removed after 21 days, the aggressive behavior subside. Cockatiels living in the wild only produce 1 or 2 clutches of eggs each year.

More than 2 clutches would be considered unnatural. Chronic egg laying in pet cockatiels is described as laying more than 2 clutches of eggs per year. The stress and physical demands of excessive egg laying include some of the following health problems. Avian veterinarians usually consider it safe for an adult, healthy, well nourished cockatiel to lay 2 clutches of eggs a year.

In most cases, chronic egg layers will seem healthy for years but eventually they will suffer from malnutrition and other serious health problems because of the progressive stress and physical demands associated with egg laying. Stress impairs the immune system, making it easier for birds to get sick. Egg laying in excess of 2 clutches a year should be discouraged because it also compromises a female's general health and causes reproductive disorders.

Once a female starts laying eggs, all future egg laying is influenced and controlled by hormones. By interrupting, changing and removing the environmental stimuli that cause a hormonal egg laying cycle, future egg laying can be prevented. Environmental changes should create undesirable breeding conditions, just the opposite of what optimum conditions are for breeding.

Modifying your Bird's Environment: Remove toys made out of paper, wood and other natural fibers that she is chewing and shredding. Re-arranging the cage so it feels less secure and reducing the number of daylight hours your bird is exposed are often very effective in preventing or stopping chronic egg laying. Birds will not set up nest and start producing eggs if the site they have chosen feels insecure.

Other changes that can make the cage feel less suitable for nesting include moving the cage to another area side of the room or moving cage into a completely different room. Putting your bird into an entirely different looking cage in a different room is even better. The more drastic the change, the more effect it will have on preventing egg laying. Since exposure to daylight has a strong influence on breeding hormones, reduce the amount of daylight hours that your bird is exposed to so the environment resembles Winter, non-breeding months.

Reduce daylight exposure to 10 hours a day and keep the cage covered for 14 hours each night in a very dark, quiet room, for 2 weeks. If this doesn't help, reduce your bird's exposure to daylight to 8 hours a day Cover the cage so your bird is in darkness for 16 hours for 2 weeks.

Avoid giving your bird baths, water misting or soft foods during the 2 week period. Re-arranging, moving the cage and reducing light should all be done at the same time. Reducing light alone may encourage egg laying by making the cage seem like a nestbox. Get facts on fertility drugs and infertility treatments. A midwife and doula are not the same thing. A doula's job is to provide non-medical, emotional, and personal support to a woman throughout her pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum experience.

A certified nurse midwife is a medical health care professional that manages the overall general health of the mother and baby; for example, performs exams, orders laboratory tests, and procedures, and performs fetal monitoring from the pregnant woman's first prenatal visit to post-partum and aftercare. A midwife can deliver the baby, whereas a doula cannot.

A midwife usually tries to minimize the use of unnecessary technological interventions. A midwife cannot perform C-sections, use vacuums or forceps during labor and delivery. Midwives generally work with an Obstetrician a doctor that specializes in pregnancy, birth, and women's reproductive health when medical intervention by a specialist is necessary.

A doula does not require a medical degree, but requires certification in some states. Government of the District of Columbia. American College of Nurse-Midwives. Hot flashes or flushing is the most common symptom experienced by a woman prior to and during the early stages of menopause, and often is described as the feeling of warmth that spreads over the body, often starting at the head accompanied by sweating. Symptoms of hot flashes include:. Diagnosis is made by taking a patient history and, at times, blood tests.

Treatment options include hormone therapy, bioidentical hormone therapy, and medications. There are non-FDA approved natural home remedies such as:. Hot flashes also can be caused by other conditions. Scientific studies to prove the safety and effectiveness of these products in relieving hot flashes have not been adequately performed. Consult your health-care professional before taking any herbal supplement. There are numerous causes of pelvic pain in women and men.

Causes of pelvic pain in women and men include:. Bleeding during pregnancy is never normal. Causes of bleeding during the first trimester of a pregnancy may be caused by implantation bleeding, ectopic or tubal pregnancy, subchorionic hemorrhaging, infections, and miscarriage. Bleeding during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy can be caused by a variety of factors. Trying to get conceive, or become pregnant can be challenging, frustrating, and an emotional rollercoaster for some couples.

A couple can chart their progress, which may ultimately lead to a successful healthy pregnancy, or, when necessary, lead to discussions with a fertility specialist. If you're a woman, be aware of your menstrual cycle, and you can track when you are fertile during the month using the:. Both men and women can have fertility problems. Quick Guide Female Sexual Dysfunction: Treatment for Women's Sexual Disorders.

Take the Infertility Quiz. Which Infertility Treatment is for You? Related Article Infertility Quiz: Test Your IQ of Infertility. Midwife A midwife and doula are not the same thing.

Flibanserin Addyi is a drug prescribed premenopausal women with acquired generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD and are experiencing low sexual desire, marked distress, or interpersonal difficulty. Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication. Symptoms of hot flashes include: Flushing Excessive sweating Anxiety Palpitations Diagnosis is made by taking a patient history and, at times, blood tests.

There are non-FDA approved natural home remedies such as: Black cohosh Licorice Evening primrose oil Wild yam Dong quai Hot flashes also can be caused by other conditions. Boost fertility and increase your chances to conceive. Learn about ovulation calendars, diet, aging and other factors that can affect pregnancy.

Causes of pelvic pain in women and men include: Perimenopause is the time in a woman's life when she is approaching menopause. During this time a woman starts to develop symptoms of declining estrogen levels that may include mood swings, painful sex, night sweats, hot flashes, and weight gain.

What Happens During the Menstrual Cycle?