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This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function. Retrieved 10 May Out of the Shtetl: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. British Journal of Sports Medicine Review.

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Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition

Theories of Health Behavior. Designed to provide an overview of health behavior theories, program planning models and multi-level interventions typically used in public health.

Each level of the socio-ecological model will be discussed including individual, interpersonal, organization, community and policy. Directed field experience is required. Formerly titled "Foundations of Health Theory. Study of community health problems and the function and organization of public, private, and voluntary health agencies, application of health theories and models and program planning methods.

Offered Fall Semester only. Organization, administration, and supervision of health programs in the community, school, business, or industry setting. Application of health theories, models and program planning methods is required. Application of theories and models for program development, implementation and evaluation. Health majors and minors only. Physical, social, and psychological development throughout the lifespan.

Implications for health professionals at all stages of development prenatal to death are addressed. Practical application of techniques for shaping healthier emotional behavior; emphasis on personality, stress management, and fulfilling relationships.

Child and Adolescent Health Promotion. Designed for students who are interested in promoting the health of youth, as well as those students pursuing academic training in education and community health.

The primary goal of this course is to improve the health literacy of teachers and health promotion specialists through understanding and application of evidence-based child and adolescent health promotion concepts.

Program Planning and Evaluation. This course provides students with a basic understanding of planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs in a variety of settings, including worksite, healthcare, and community and at a various levels individual, organization, community, policy.

Human Disease and Epidemiology. An in-depth look at the etiology, prevention, and treatment of chronic and contagious diseases afflicting humans and epidemiological methods.

An in-depth study of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects. An in-depth examination of the principles of nutrition and their effects on health and fitness.

Emphasis on critical thinking and translation of nutritional knowledge to real-world settings. Includes self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Application of health theories and models for program development, implementation, and evaluation in nutritional context. Environmental Health and Safety. Considers applicable factors of ecology, including problems related to water, waste, pesticides, foods, radiation, population, and other aspects of the total ecosystem, as well as personal and occupational safety within these parameters.

Capstone for Community Health and Preventive Services. This course aids students in synthesizing their classroom and internship experiences to reinforce critical skills and key responsibilities for Health Educators.

This course will provide students with an overview of resources, skills, and recommendations regarding their professional development. Student is required to have a cumulative grade point average of 2. The opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with the faculty advisor and on-site coordinator.

Special Studies in Health. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study in an area of health not available as part of the regular course offerings. Enrollment limited to candidates for honors in the Department of Health and Kinesiology during the last two semesters; consent of the Honors College. Supervised research and preparation of an honors thesis.

Practice in the techniques of individual physical activities. Sections focus on particular sports or fitness activities as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. Freshman Topics in Kinesiology. This course is designed to help students acquire the tools and life skills necessary to succeed in college and the future.

The curriculum is an overview of topics including: Practice in the techniques of team sports. Sections focus on particular sports as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. Generally offered Fall, Spring. Computer Applications in Kinesiology and Health. Application of computer and multimedia technology in Kinesiology and Health disciplines. Lifetime Fitness Activity Instruction. Practice in delivering instructions in lifetime fitness activities for adults.

These activities include cycling, hiking, jogging, golf, badminton and tennis. Fitness and Wellness Concepts. This course is designed to provide students with developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and fitness. The course will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings. An individual fitness requirement may be required. This course examines the word roots, prefixes, suffixes and terms used in medicine and clinical exercise. A major focus will be on the terms used in the major organ systems of the body, diseases, injuries, and medical treatments.

First Aid and CPR. A study of basic first aid procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , automated external defibrillation AED , and blood borne pathogens. Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to sit for national certification in first aid and CPR. Study of the history and philosophy of physical activity, and an introduction to anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, and psychology of exercise and sport.

This course will also introduce careers in kinesiology and the requirements for graduation with a degree in kinesiology. Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology. Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games. Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups. Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed. Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports.

Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs. Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field. This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports.

Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.

Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball. Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball.

Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults. Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction. Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages. Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance. Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities.

A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span. Effects of social, cognitive, growth and maturation, and aging factors on motor development will be addressed. Directed field experience may be required. Scientific Principles of Physical Activity. A study of the physiological and biomechanical principles of physical activity and human movement. Emphasis is placed on acute responses and chronic adaptations of the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems to physical activity.

Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries. Prevention and care of athletic injuries. A study of training and conditioning for the team and individual. Techniques and procedures for emergencies: Organization of the training room facility. Formerly titled "Athletic Injuries and Training Procedures. Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data. Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention.

The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion. The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics. Biomechanics laboratory hours are required. Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage. Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required.

Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography.

Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory. This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.

Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function.

Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription. A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children.

A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced. Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities.

Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling. This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation. Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory.

Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades. Introduction to Sport Psychology. This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports.

This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information. Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport. Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques.

Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training. Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized.

Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required. Restricted course; advisor code required for registration. In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues.

This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology. This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries. This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement.

This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings. Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems.

Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease. Teaching Elementary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum.

Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required. Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities. Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control.

Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance. Motor learning laboratory hours are required. Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports.

The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Course may be repeated for credit.

A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity. Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles. Field experience is required throughout the course. Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries. The statute granted exclusive jurisdiction of Jewish courts over Jewish matters and established a separate tribunal for matters involving Christians and Jews.

Additionally, it guaranteed personal liberties and safety for Jews including freedom of religion, travel, and trade. The statute was ratified by subsequent Polish Kings: Poland freed Jews from direct royal authority, opening up enormous administrative and economic opportunities to them. The right to worship freely was a basic right given to all inhabitants of the future Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout the 15th and early 16th century, however, complete freedom of religion was officially recognized in during the Warsaw Confederation.

Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth kept religious freedom laws during an era when religious persecution was an everyday occurrence in the rest of Europe. Most of the early colonies were generally not tolerant of dissident forms of worship, with Maryland being one of the exceptions. For example, Roger Williams found it necessary to found a new colony in Rhode Island to escape persecution in the theocratically dominated colony of Massachusetts. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers , and the persecuting spirit was shared by Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river.

Freedom of religion was first applied as a principle of government in the founding of the colony of Maryland, founded by the Catholic Lord Baltimore , in The Maryland Toleration Act was repealed during the Cromwellian Era with the assistance of Protestant assemblymen and a new law barring Catholics from openly practicing their religion was passed.

This time, it would last more than thirty years, until [52] when, after Maryland's Protestant Revolution of , freedom of religion was again rescinded. Catholics and later on Jews also had full citizenship and free exercise of their religions. Williams gave the most profound argument: As faith is the free work of the Holy Spirit , it cannot be forced on a person. Therefore, strict separation of church and state has to be kept. It was the inseparable connection between democracy, religious freedom, and the other forms of freedom which became the political and legal basis of the new nation.

Reiterating Maryland's and the other colonies' earlier colonial legislation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom , written in by Thomas Jefferson , proclaimed:. Those sentiments also found expression in the First Amendment of the national constitution, part of the United States' Bill of Rights: The United States formally considers religious freedom in its foreign relations.

The International Religious Freedom Act of established the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom which investigates the records of over other nations with respect to religious freedom, and makes recommendations to submit nations with egregious records to ongoing scrutiny and possible economic sanctions.

Many human rights organizations have urged the United States to be still more vigorous in imposing sanctions on countries that do not permit or tolerate religious freedom. Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.

Canadian law goes further, requiring that private citizens and companies provide reasonable accommodation to those, for example, with strong religious beliefs.

The Canadian Human Rights Act allows an exception to reasonable accommodation with respect to religious dress, such as a Sikh turban , when there is a bona fide occupational requirement, such as a workplace requiring a hard hat. This declaration recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental human right in accordance with several other instruments of international law. However, the most substantial binding legal instruments that guarantee the right to freedom of religion that was passed by the international community is the Convention on the Rights of the Child which states in its Article In , the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief.

Despite this, minority religions still are persecuted in many parts of the world. The French philosopher Voltaire noted in his book on English society, Letters on the English , that freedom of religion in a diverse society was deeply important to maintaining peace in that country.

That it was also important in understanding why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours.

Adam Smith , in his book The Wealth of Nations using an argument first put forward by his friend and contemporary David Hume , states that in the long run it is in the best interests of society as a whole and the civil magistrate government in particular to allow people to freely choose their own religion, as it helps prevent civil unrest and reduces intolerance.

It is this free competition amongst religious sects for converts that ensures stability and tranquillity in the long run. Smith also points out that laws that prevent religious freedom and seek to preserve the power and belief in a particular religion will, in the long run, only serve to weaken and corrupt that religion, as its leaders and preachers become complacent, disconnected and unpractised in their ability to seek and win over new converts: The interested and active zeal of religious teachers can be dangerous and troublesome only where there is either but one sect tolerated in the society, or where the whole of a large society is divided into two or three great sects; the teachers of each acting by concert, and under a regular discipline and subordination.

But that zeal must be altogether innocent, where the society is divided into two or three hundred, or, perhaps, into as many thousand small sects, of which no one could be considerable enough to disturb the public tranquillity. The teachers of each sect, seeing themselves surrounded on all sides with more adversaries than friends, would be obliged to learn that candour and moderation which are so seldom to be found among the teachers of those great sects.

Hinduism is one of the more broad-minded religions when it comes to religious freedom. Hindus believe in different ways to preach attainment of God and religion as a philosophy and hence respect all religions as equal.

One of the famous Hindu sayings about religion is: However, Judaism also exists in many forms as a civilization, possessing characteristics known as peoplehood, rather than strictly as a religion. However, these laws are not adhered to anymore as Jews have usually lived among a multi-religious community. After the conquest of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judea by the Roman Empire, a Jewish state did not exist until with the establishment of the State of Israel.

For over years Jewish people lived under pagan, Christian, Muslim, etc. As such Jewish people in some of these states faced persecution. In the Middle East, Jews were categorised as dhimmi, non- Muslims permitted to live within a Muslim state. Even though given rights within a Muslim state, a dhimmi is still not equal to a Muslim within Muslim society, the same way non-Jewish Israeli citizens are not equal with Jewish citizens in modern-day Israel.

Possibly because of this history of long term persecution, Jews in modernity have been among the most active proponents of religious freedom in the US and abroad and have founded and supported anti-hate institutions, including the Anti-Defamation League, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the American Civil Liberties Union. Jews are very active in supporting Muslim and other religious groups in the US against discrimination and hate crimes and most Jewish congregations throughout the US and many individual Jews participate in interfaith community projects and programs.

While the Israel Declaration of Independence stresses religious freedom as a fundamental principle, in practice the current [ timeframe? However, as a nation state, Israel is very open towards other religions and religious practices, including public Muslim call to prayer chants and Christian prayer bells ringing in Jerusalem. Israel has been evaluated in research by the Pew organization as having "high" government restrictions on religion. The government recognizes only Orthodox Judaism in certain matters of personal status, and marriages can only be performed by religious authorities.

The government provides the greatest funding to Orthodox Judaism, even though adherents represent a minority of citizens. Women of the Wall have organized to promote religious freedom at the Wall. Rabbi Joel Levy, director of the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, said that he had submitted the request on behalf of the students and saw their shock when the request was denied. According to the Catholic Church in the Vatican II document on religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae , "the human person has a right to religious freedom", which is described as "immunity from coercion in civil society".

The Syllabus was made up of phrases and paraphrases from earlier papal documents, along with index references to them, and presented as a list of "condemned propositions". It does not explain why each particular proposition is wrong, but it cites earlier documents to which the reader can refer for the Pope's reasons for saying each proposition is false. Among the statements included in the Syllabus are: Some Orthodox Christians, especially those living in democratic countries, support religious freedom for all, as evidenced by the position of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Many Protestant Christian churches, including some Baptists , Churches of Christ , Seventh-day Adventist Church and main line churches have a commitment to religious freedoms.

However others, such as African scholar Makau Mutua , have argued that Christian insistence on the propagation of their faith to native cultures as an element of religious freedom has resulted in a corresponding denial of religious freedom to native traditions and led to their destruction. As he states in the book produced by the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, "Imperial religions have necessarily violated individual conscience and the communal expressions of Africans and their communities by subverting African religions.

In their book Breaking India , Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan discussed the "US Church" funding activities in India, such as the popularly advertised campaigns to "save" poor children by feeding, clothing, and educating them, with the book arguing that the funds collected were being used not so much for the purposes indicated to sponsors, but for indoctrination and conversion activities. They suggest that this nexus of players includes not only church groups, government bodies, and related organizations, but also private think tanks and academics.

Joel Spring has written about the Christianization of the Roman Empire:. Christianity added new impetus to the expansion of empire.

Increasing the arrogance of the imperial project, Christians insisted that the Gospels and the Church were the only valid sources of religious beliefs. Imperialists could claim that they were both civilizing the world and spreading the true religion. By the 5th century, Christianity was thought of as co-extensive with the Imperium romanum. This meant that to be human, as opposed to being a natural slave, was to be "civilized" and Christian.

Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion. Certain Muslim-majority countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens. Other countries [ who? Even other Muslim-majority countries are secular and thus do not regulate religious belief.

Thus, this supports the argument against the execution of apostates in Islam. However, on the other hand, some Muslims support the practice of executing apostates who leave Islam, as in Bukhari: In Iran, the constitution recognizes four religions whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Among the most contentious areas of religious freedom is the right of an individual to change or abandon his or her own religion apostasy , and the right to evangelize individuals seeking to convince others to make such a change. Other debates have centered around restricting certain kinds of missionary activity by religions. Many Islamic states, and others such as China, severely restrict missionary activities of other religions.

Greece, among European countries, has generally looked unfavorably on missionary activities of denominations others than the majority church and proselytizing is constitutionally prohibited. A different kind of critique of the freedom to propagate religion has come from non-Abrahamic traditions such as the African and Indian.

African scholar Makau Mutua criticizes religious evangelism on the ground of cultural annihilation by what he calls "proselytizing universalist faiths" Chapter Proselytism and Cultural Integrity, p.

Some Indian scholars [93] have similarly argued that the right to propagate religion is not culturally or religiously neutral. In Sri Lanka, there have been debates regarding a bill on religious freedom that seeks to protect indigenous religious traditions from certain kinds of missionary activities. Debates have also occurred in various states of India regarding similar laws, particularly those that restrict conversions using force, fraud or allurement. In , Christian Solidarity Worldwide , a Christian human rights non-governmental organisation which specializes in religious freedom, launched an in-depth report on the human rights abuses faced by individuals who leave Islam for another religion.

The report is the product of a year long research project in six different countries. It calls on Muslim nations, the international community, the UN and the international media to resolutely address the serious violations of human rights suffered by apostates. In Islam, apostasy is called " ridda " "turning back" and is considered to be a profound insult to God.

A person born of Muslim parents that rejects Islam is called a " murtad fitri " natural apostate , and a person that converted to Islam and later rejects the religion is called a " murtad milli " apostate from the community. In Islamic law Sharia , the consensus view is that a male apostate must be put to death unless he suffers from a mental disorder or converted under duress, for example, due to an imminent danger of being killed.

A female apostate must be either executed, according to Shafi'i , Maliki , and Hanbali schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence fiqh , or imprisoned until she reverts to Islam as advocated by the Sunni Hanafi school and by Shi'a scholars. Ideally, the one performing the execution of an apostate must be an imam. However, while almost all scholars agree about the punishment, many disagree on the allowable time to retract the apostasy. Rahman, a former Chief Justice of Pakistan, argues that there is no indication of the death penalty for apostasy in the Qur'an.

Religious practice may also conflict with secular law, creating debates on religious freedom. For instance, even though polygamy is permitted in Islam, it is prohibited in secular law in many countries. This raises the question of whether prohibiting the practice infringes on the beliefs of certain Muslims. The US and India, both constitutionally secular nations, have taken two different views of this.

In the US, polygamy is prohibited for all. This was a major source of conflict between the early LDS Church and the United States until the Church amended its position on practicing polygamy. Similar issues have also arisen in the context of the religious use of psychedelic substances by Native American tribes in the United States as well as other Native practices.

Traynor neatly summarized the American position on how freedom of religion cannot imply freedom from law: City of Hialeah in upheld the right of Santeria adherents to practice ritual animal sacrifice , with Justice Anthony Kennedy stating in the decision: Hodges legalizing Same-sex marriage in the United States. When she refused to issue marriage licenses, she became embroiled in the Miller v. Her actions caused attorney and author Roberta Kaplan to state that "Kim Davis is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate.

In , the case of Engele v. Vitale went to court over the violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment resulting from a mandatory nondenominational prayer in New York public schools.

The Supreme Court ruled in opposition to the state. Edward Schempp sued the school district in Abington over the Pennsylvania law which required students to hear and sometimes read portions of the bible for their daily education. The court ruled in favor of Schempp and the Pennsylvania law was overturned. In , the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Epperson v.

Susan Epperson, a high school teacher in Arkansas sued over a violation of religious freedom. The state had a law banning the teaching of evolution and the school Epperson worked for had provided curriculum which contained evolutionary theory.

Epperson had to choose between violating the law or losing her job. The Supreme Court ruled to overturn the Arkansas law because it was unconstitutional. The law in Germany provides the term of "religious majority" Religiöse Mündigkeit with a minimum age for minors to follow their own religious beliefs even if their parents don't share those or don't approve.

Children 14 and older have the unrestricted right to enter or exit any religious community. Children 12 and older cannot be compelled to change to a different belief. Children 10 and older have to be heard before their parents change their religious upbringing to a different belief. In its annual report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom designated fourteen nations as "countries of particular concern". The commission chairman commented that these are nations whose conduct marks them as the world's worst religious freedom violators and human rights abusers.

There are concerns about the restrictions on public religious dress in some European countries including the Hijab , Kippah , and Christian cross. The Pew Research Center has performed studies on international religious freedom between and , compiling global data from 16 governmental and non-governmental organizations—including the United Nations, the United States State Department , and Human Rights Watch —and representing over Social hostilities were classified by the level of communal violence and religion-related terrorism.

While most countries provided for the protection of religious freedom in their constitutions or laws, only a quarter of those countries were found to fully respect these legal rights in practice. In 75 countries governments limit the efforts of religious groups to proselytise and in countries religious groups must register with the government.

The countries in North and South America reportedly had some of the lowest levels of government and social restrictions on religion, while The Middle East and North Africa were the regions with the highest. Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Iran were the countries that top the list of countries with the overall highest levels of restriction on religion. Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way.

It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance [] as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers.

During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw.

The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers.

The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s. In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa. This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began.

Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese.

These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard. In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment [] [] and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease.

However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending. Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment.

The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.

Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease, [16] it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.

In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory. The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.

A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination. The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity.

In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.

Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity. Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal.

Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI. Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends. Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year.

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