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Returns A sweet Girl! A Bayesian analysis of long-standing folktales, using R and Stan". Nevertheless, one fifth of current Israel's Jewish population have immigrated from former Soviet Union in the last two decades. Pointing to the Page Have you forgiven what happened yesterday, my Lord? The four-player versions of Italian Poker and Turkish Poker are forms of card poker with some special rules. Returning Who, pray Sir, gave you those Orders? But thou seemest frightened my little Beauty.

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To besure I hurt my right leg, a little, in the fall; just here at the ancle—I feel it still. You had received my letter, my Lord, since I must own it, and was come, somewhat sooner than I expected, in a dreadful passion, in search of a man. If it was you, you have grown plaguy fast within this half hour, to my thinking.

The man that I saw did not seem so tall by the head and shoulders. I saw no such thing! The Countess, Figaro, and Susan are all surprised and embarrassed. Figaro shakes himself, and eadeavours to recover his fortitude. Ay, since it was you, you doubtless can tell what this Paper contains claps the paper behind his back as he faces Figaro and how it happened to come in your Pocket? Oh, my Lord, I have such quantities of Papers searches his pockets, pulls out a great many No, it is not this!

I never presented it to your Lordship, because I know you have affairs much more serious on your hands, than the Complaints of such half-starved Rascals—Ah!

Holds out the paper in action as he speaks, the Countess who stands next him catches a sight of it. Reels round to Figaro My Lord says you—know nothing of the matter. What a stupid fool I am! Looks at the Commission, finds the Seal is wanting, and exclaims with vexation and disappointment The Devil and his Imps!

Forbear, my Lord, to give such Orders; in Justice forbear. I have a written promise Edition: You are my lawful Judge. A trifle, my Lord: Let the Advocates and Officers of Justice be assembled in the great Hall; we will there determine on the justice of your claim.

It becomes us not to suffer any Vassal of ours, however we may privately esteem him, to be guilty of public injury. Your Lordship is acquainted with my claims on Marcelina: I hope your Lordship will grant me your support. Approach, honest Basil; faithful Agent of our Will and Pleasure. Basil bows Go order the Lawyers to assemble. And tell the Peasant, by whom you sent me the Letter this morning, I want to speak with him. Your Lordship is pleased to joke with your humble Servant. I know no such Peasant.

My Office, in this House, as your Lordship knows, is not to go of Errands! I will go, if your Lordship pleases to Edition: I should be very glad to oblige your Lordship. Thank your Lordship, thank your noble Lordship. Who would have thought it! Or, depart from my Service. Shall I wage war with a Lion, who am only—. Bounce, Basil begins to play, Figaro dances and sings off before him, and Bounce follows, dancing after. So pale, such Terror in your Countenance!

And then your suddenly assumed tranquillity! Without the least hesitation—as light and as chearful as a Linnet. I will meet him myself; and then nobody will be exposed. You must not mention a Word of this, Susan, to any body. Your Project is a charming one, Madam, and I shall yet have my Figaro. And if I have reason to suppose them plotting against me, he shall marry Marcelina.

My Wife, if you please. My Wife, if you please! To—to—to—That is—They were the last words of a sentence I was saying to one of the Servants—Go and tell so and so to— my Wife, if you please. If in sifting my Gentleman, I find him unwilling to go to France, I may conclude Susan has betrayed me.

Approaches Figaro with familiarity —Thou knowest, Figaro, it was my intention to have taken thee with me on my Embassy to Paris, but I believe thou dost not understand French. Party and Politics are much the same, they are become synonimous terms. Aside Since he is so willing to go to Paris, Susan has said nothing. And—I suppose thou wilt take thy Wife with thee—to Paris? No—no—I should be obliged to quit her so frequently, that I am afraid the Cares of the marriage state would lie too heavy on my head sgnificantly.

Susan has betrayed me. Aside He does not like the retort. The Count smiles, approaches Figaro with great familiarity, and leans upon his shoulder—By-play between the Count and Figaro.

The time was, Figaro, when thou wert more open—Formerly thou wouldst tell me any thing. Will give her any thing but yourself—Of what worth are Trinkets when we are in want of Necessaries? Come, come; be sincere—Tell me—How much did the Countess give thee for this last plot? Yes, yes; she has told him. Yes, yes; Susan has betrayed me, and my Gentleman marries Marcelina.

He has been angling for Gudgeons, and what has he caught? Ironically Aye, let them wait. For— Somewhat embarrassed To see these benches and chairs set in order. That is already done, my Lord. Here is the great chair for your Lordship, a seat for the President, a table and stool for his Clerk, two benches for the Lawyers, the middle for the Beau monde, and the Mob in the back ground.

He is too cunning; I can get nothing out of him; but they certainly understand each other. Here; and when she has done with it, borrow it for yourself,—it may be useful.

I the vapours, my Lord! Oh, suppose the worst, my Lord, we can pay Marcelina with the Portion your Lordship has promised us!

Wilt thou take a walk this evening in the garden, by the Pavilion? Nay, nay, but let us understand each other—No Pavilion, no Marriage. And no Marriage, no Pavilion, my Lord! What a witty little Devil! I wonder what she does to fascinate me so! This very Morning, thou knowest—.

This Morning, my Lord! Is it necessary, my Lord, such a knave as Basil should know every thing that passes? She is right again! To be sure, my Lord. I always tell him all—except what is necessary to conceal. What a charming little Knave it is! Run, run to thy Mistress; she is waiting, and may suspect us. The Count unable to conceal his transport, is going to kiss her, but hears somebody coming, and they separate. She absolutely bewitches me! I had sworn to think no more of her, but she winds me just as she pleases!

He is just gone—Thou hast gained thy Cause—Run, run, run. Exit Susan, running, Figaro following. Thou hast gained thy Cause—Aha!

And is it so, my pair of Knaves! But the Cuckoo is not caught—Come! With passion Be we just! Stuttering We-e-e-ell, le-et us exa-a-mine the matter ve-erbally. I co-o-o-omprehend—The m-m-man would marry you to pay his de-de-de-bts. President, he would neither marry me, nor pay his debts. T-t-t-to be sure—Wha-at else did I purchase my Place for thi-ink you, Loughs stupidly at the supposed folly of the Question And where is the De-fe-e-endant?

A pro-o-mise of Ma-a-arriage a Ba-a-gatelle! With stupid dignity Ye-e-es! I am one of the Judges! Wherefore in your Robes, Don Guzman? It was unnecessary for a mere domestic matter like this. Pa-a-ardon me, my Lord! The Count and the Court seat themselves.

The question at present before the Court, is, to know the Author of a Comedy that has been damned; which they mutually disavow and attribute to each other.

Against Figaro Anonymous, Gentleman, Defendant. The Question before the Court relates to a promise of Marriage; the Parties have retained no Council, contrary to the ancient and established practice of Courts.

What occasion for Council? A race of Gentleman who are always so very learned, they know every thing, except their Briefs! Who insolently interrogate Modesty and Timidity, and endeavour, by confusing, to make Honesty forswear itself; and, after having laboured for hours, with all legal prolixity, to perplex self-evident Propositions, and bewilder the understandings of the Judges, sit down as proud as if they had just pronounced a Phillipic of Demosthenes— Addressing himself to the Court My Lord, and Gentlemen—The Question before the Court is—.

Interrupting him It is not you to speak, you are the Defendant—Who pleads for the Plaintiff. Addressing himself to the Count My Lord, and Gentlemen! Never did cause more interesting, more intricate, or in which the Interest of Mankind, their Rights, Properties, Lives and Liberties were more materially involved, ever claim the profound Attention of this most learned, most honourable Court, and from the time of Alexander the Great, who promised to espouse the beauteous Thalestris—.

Stop, most formidable Orator; and ere you proceed, enquire whether the Defendant does not contest the validity of your Deed. To Figaro Do you co-ontest the va-va-va-va-lidity of the Dee-eed? My Lord and Gentlemen! There is in this Case, either Fraud, Error, Malice, or mischievous Intention, for the Words of the Acknowledgment are, I promise to repay the said Marcelina-Jane-Maria-Angelica-Mustachio, the said sum of two thousand Piasters or to marry her, which is very different.

No matter; the sense of the Phrase is equally clear. This learned Court is not now to be informed the word or particle, Or, hath various significations—It means otherwise and either —It likewise means before —For example, in the language of the Poet. For what reason could Edition: Let us then substitute the adverb Wherefore, and the intent and meaning of the Promise will be incontestable; for, after reciting an acknowledgement of the debt, it concludes with the remarkable words, Or to marry her, that is, wherefore, for which reason, out of gratitude, for the Favour above done me, I will marry her.

Pointing first to the Doctor, and then to Marcelina. Count and the Counsellors rise and consult together. Their Whisperings and wise Grimaces forebode me no good. That Susan has corrupted the chief Judge, and he is corrupting all the others. The Count and Counsellors resume their seats. The judgment of the Court is, that since the validity of the promise of Marriage is not well-established, Figaro is permitted to dispose of his Person. But as the Acknowledgement clearly expresses the words, Which sum I promise to pay the said Marcelina-Jane-Maria-Angelica-Mustachio, or to marry her, the said Figaro stands condemned to pay the two thousand Piasters to the Plaintiff, or marry her in the course of the Day.

Thank your noble Lordship! Most humbly thank your noble Lordship! Exeunt Guards, Counsellors, and Vassels. Sits down dejected I will never marry her. Returning Where are they? Allow me time, my Lord—I must first know where to find them, and yet it ought not to be long, for I have been seeking them these five Years. Pointing to the Doctor.

Come to my arms, my dear, my long lost Child. Figaro and Marcelina embrace, the Doctor leans against the Benches. The latter runs to find the Count. In great Agitation Oh, where is my Lord? Here is the Money to pay Marcelina with! The Portion which my noble and generous Lady has given me! Susan, at seeing them embrace becomes furious, and is going away, Figaro runs and brings her back.

I have seen enough—Since you are so fond of her, pray marry her. Gives him a slap in the face. Prithee come hither, look at that Lady—How dost thou like her? Yes, my dearest Susan, embrace thy Mother—Thy Mother, who will love thee dearly.

Willingly, Susan runs and kisses her Here, my Son, here is the Promise. Gives him the Paper. Gives him a Purse of Money. Oh, my Mother, Oh, my Susan! They all three embrace, weeping. What a Foo-oo-ool am I! A Knave that tricked me of my Ward, cheated me of my Money, and now has been turning my Wisdom into ridicule. And are not you, being a wise Man, proud to have a Son wiser than yourself?

Susan strokes his Cheek, Figaro kneels, and Marcelina coaxes him. Bursts out a crying See, if I am not even Edition: Exeunt Doctor, Marcelina, Figaro and Susan. SHE has converted her Doctor at last—They are to be married, and these so late implacable Enemies are now become our dearest Friends. And think of that other blind beggar, Love—Most willingly, my Angel. Rather say it was not half thy meaning, or thy meaning ill expressed.

Truths that may not be spoken: As it is for thee, my gentle, kind, and beauteous Bride, to be transformed into an ill-tempered, extravagant slatternly Wife. Aye, and thus live a happy Exception to the established usage of a mad World. Thinkest thou I am as learned as thou art? And that I keep several sorts of Truths? And dost thou love me? Too much, I doubt. I understand nothing of this over-refinement, but I feel I shall love my Husband most heartily.

Wherever you meet One of them, be certain you shall find a Pair. I will take my excuse in my hand— Going to lead out Susan —Few offenders can plead so charming a one. No, no; stop Susan: I want you—She Edition: Catching hold of her and kneeling. Let me conjure you to hear me, to pardon me. That must be fixed—Sit down, take the pen and write— Susan sits down, the Countess dictates.

Looking archly at the Countess. Fasten it with a Pin, and write on the direction, Return the Seal. Wouldst thou have me let him wear it? It will do for Agnes; I will give it her the first Bouquet she presents me. Looking at the Page What pretty maiden is this? Well, then, as we can wear but one nosegay, let us do honour to the Stranger Takes the Nosegay from the Page, and kisses his forehead. Aside What a precious kiss!

I feel it here. Putting his hand on his heart. Enter the Count, and Antonio with a hat in his hand. The rakish little Rascal is disguised among the Girls. I found his new hat and cockade here—hid in a basket. The Countess and Susan surprised, look at the Page, and then at each other. The girls surround and endeavour to hide Hannibal; Antonio seeks among them.

Ay, ay, here he is—here he is. Antonio takes off his cap, and puts on his hat There, my Lord! This young gentleman Pointing to the Page was hid in my Dressing-room. Because, my Lord, when your Passions are predominant, you are incapable of either listening to or believing the Truth. Turning with great wrath towards the Page What is the reason, Sir, you have not obeyed my Commands?

Draws back frightened, and takes off his hat My-my-my Lord, I staid to teach Agnes the Love scene she is to play in the Comedy this evening. Steps forward Ah, my Lord, when you come to my room, you know, and want to kiss me—. The Countess remarks his embarrassment, Susan laughs silently, and makes signs to the Countess. You say to me, My pretty Agnes, if you will but love me, I will give you any thing you wish to have; now, my Lord, if you will give me Hannibal for a husband, I will love you with all my heart.

You hear, my Lord! And do not circumstances prove, how injurious your Suspicions have been, and how well founded mine? Count bows to the Countess. Come, my pretty Maidens, come. Turning him back You were very lucky to light upon such soft ground. Turning him back on the other side And then you double yourself up, when you take a leap? Yet, like a Cat, you fall on your feet.

Bringing the Page forward Do you know this bashful young Lady? Well, and what Riddle has he to propound? No Riddle, Sir, but a simple matter of fact: Why not, my Lord? One sheep begins, and the rest naturally follow: Quick, quick, run, run, run. Exeunt Susan and Figaro, with the Girls. Putting on his hat No matter—I bare away that upon my forehead, which would compensate for an age of imprisonment Exit joyously.

Looks at the Countess, who recollects the kiss she had just given the Page His forehead! Every new Bauble pleases a Child. Enter the Procession of the two Weddings.

They all salute the Count and Countess as they pass; and after making the tour of the stage, Antonio presents his Niece to the Count; Susan kneels, one of the Bridemaids gives the Count the nuptial Cap; and Susan, while the Count is placing it on her head, plucks him by the cloak, and shews him the Note she had just before written.

He pretends to keep adjusting the Cap, and slily reaches to take the Note, which he instantly claps in his bosom, having previously unbuttoned himself for that purpose.

While this is transacting a Castanet-Dance is performed. As soon as Susan rises, she purposely places herself before the Countess, to encourage the Count to read the Note, who accordingly steps forward, is going to open it, and pricks his finger with the Pin, which he plucks out and throws angrily on the floor.

This is a new fashion, which he does not seem to admire. To his Mother Every thing is precious that appertains to a beloved object. All this while Susan and the Countess remark who is passing with laughter, and private looks and gestures.

Rising Come with me, Susan. We shall soon be back, my Lord, Aside to Susan Let us make haste and exchange dresses. Exeunt Countess and Susan. Basil coming, my Lord, with the whole Village at his heels, because he has been singing all the way he went. I assure your Lordship he has not amused me in the least. Imitates beating up a Lather. When, it is well known, there is not, in all Andalusia, a more eminent! Basil, what you have to say.

Renounce your best Friend? And I will go and prepare the Fireworks in the Garden, near the Pavilion. Returning Who, pray Sir, gave you those Orders? Figaro turns and sees Agnes just behind him, coming down the Stage. What you have been listening, my little inquisitive Cousin?

Striding about in great anger A Pin! Have you learnt your trade already? Coaxing Only to hear what my Lord said when he sent thee on this errand. Here, said he, here, my pretty little Agnes, take this Pin to thy Cousin Susan, and tell her it is the Seal of the new Song about the Twilight and the Pavilion.

The Pavilion—And take great care, said he, that nobody sees thee. Well, well, I was but joking; go and execute thy Message faithfully, exactly as my Lord bade thee. My Cousin takes me for a Ninny, I believe. Nay, but gently, my Son, gently; recollect that Jealousy is the disease of a Madman, and that your Philosophy is invulnerable.

A Pin that has wounded me to the heart! We did so; but how can we tell whether she means to deceive thee or him? I am sorry—I am a Fool—And yet! With walks of cut trees in the back ground, and two Pavilions, one on each side of the stage. A lanthorn in one hand, and two cakes and an orange in the other. THE Pavilion to the left?

Figaro imagines at first Agnes to be Susan; and, as it is too dark to see, endeavours to follow the sound of her voice, having entered while she was speaking. Agnes enters the Pavilion on the left.

They all grope down the stage till they get round Figaro What a clock is it? You understand, Gentlemen, why you are come hither—It is to be Witnesses of the Conduct of the virtuous Bride I am soon to espouse, and the honourable Lord who has graciously bestowed her upon me. Aside This will be a precious Revenge. Remember, Figaro, a wife Man has never any Contest with the Great; it is the Battle of Don Quixote with the Windmills; they whirl and dash you to a Distance, without once altering or retarding their Course.

Hide yourselves hereabouts, and come running the Moment you hear me call. Manent Figaro and Doctor. Inconstant, weak, deceitful Woman! Because you are a great Man, you fancy yourself a great Genius. Why truly, you gave yourself the Trouble to be born! While the obscurity in which I have been cast demanded more Abilities to gain a mere Subsistence than are requisite to govern Empires. And what, most noble Count, are your Claims to Distinction, to pompous Titles, and immense Wealth, of which you are so proud, and which, by Accident, you possess?

For which of your Virtues? Be advised, Figaro—be calm—there has ever been a Respect paid—. To Vice—where it is not due. A Lord—and I am—a Man! Agnes hears the voice of the Doctor, and runs in again I will retire, but if you are wise, you will wait the Event patiently; your suspicions may be unjust,—should they prove real, then shake her from you, as her Ingratitude deserves. Figaro listens I hear nothing—all is silent—and dark as their designs. I was once more turned adrift into the wide World, with leave to provide Straw and Bread and Water for myself.

And now, for once, behold the Scene changed! See me equally familiar with Lords as with their Lacquies! Every door was open to me! Every hand held out!

But, notwithstanding my desire to be Something in this world, my detestation of the brazen Effrontery, profound Ignorance, and insupportable Insolence of these fashionable Friends of Nobility was so innate that I found I could better endure all the Miseries of Poverty than the Disgrace and Disgust of such Society.

My Parents all at once claim me! A little, wise, foolish Animal, ardent in the pursuit of Pleasure, capricious through Vanity, laborious from Necessity, but Edition: Figaro sinks melancholy upon the garden-seat; but being suddenly roused by a noise, wraps himself up in his Rocquelaure. So Figaro is to be here.

In an under voice. Thus one is come to lay the Springe, and the other to seize the Game. I will go and hide myself in this Pavilion, where I shall hear all. Exit into the Pavilion on the left. Speaks louder If my Lady does not want me, I will walk and enjoy the fresh air. Is that Agnes, yonder? In a feigned voice. I know it is not Figaro you are waiting for, it is my Lord the Count—What!

Did not I hear, this Morning, when I was behind the great Chair? The babbling little Villain. Is not that somebody with Susan? Susan keeps out of the way and silently laughing. The Countess draws back to avoid being kissed by the Page, and the Count advances and presents himself in her place; the Page feels the rough beard of the Count, and suddenly retreats, crying in an under voice —Oh, the Devil! Exit Page into the Pavilion on the left. Thinking he speaks to the Page. Since you are so fond of kissing, take that.

Gives Figaro a severe box on the ear. I have paid for listening. Susan cannot contein herself, but bursts out a laughing. Why this is inconceiveable! It would be strange if he should cry this time. Count and Countess approach. But let us not lose the precious moments, my charming Susan! Kisses the Countess several times with rapture. Aside, and beating his forehead. Cominuing her feigned voice. Because I am afraid. Thou seemest to have got a cold.

And yet you loved her once. Yes—Yes—I did so—But three Years of better Acquaintance has made the Marriage-state so respectable—And then Wives are so loving—when they do love, that is—that one is surprised when in search of Pleasure, to find Satiety.

Are there Echoes here? And now, my sweet Susan, receive the Portion I promised thee. Gives a purse and puts a ring upon her finger —And continue likewise to wear this Ring for my sake. Was there ever so faithless a Hussey?

These riches are all for us! Still keeps chuckling very heartily at what is going forwards. They are preparatory to thy Nuptials.

Come, come, let us retire for a moment into the Pavilion. Yes, but there are; and evil ones Edition: Countess follows the Count.

Raising his voice majesterially. Aside to the Countess. The Countess enters the Pavilion on the right hand and the Count retires. They are gone in. Let her go—Let her go! Thou shalt pay presently for these fine Suspicions. Susan advances and mimics the voice of the Countess.

That the Count and my very virtuous Bride are this moment in yonder Pavilion Madam! Very well, my Gentleman! What does she mean? Jealous What does the good-for-nothing Fellow mean? Speaks in a tone of compliance to Figaro. Pardon my Presumption, Madam!

On any other occasion, the Respect I bear your Ladyship would keep me silent, but on the present I dare encounter all! Falls on his knees. Unable any longer to contain herself gives him a slap on the face. Susan gives it thee as soon as Figaro hears it is Susan, his satisfaction is so extreme, he laughs very heartily, and keeps laughing all the while she keeps beating him and that, and that, and that, and that for thy Insolence—And that for thy Jealousy—And that for thy Infidelity Susan out of breath, Figaro still laughing.

How durst you, you good for nothing, base, false-hearted Man, make love to me, supposing me the Countess. Talk not of Revenge, my Love, but tell me what blest Angel sent thee hither, and how thou camest by this Disguise, which so fully proves thy Innocence! Holding out her Hand Dost thou want another Proof? Thine are but proofs of Love—That of the Count, indeed, was not so gentle. A Man on his Knees to the Countess! Furiously So this is our Dressing-room Gentleman, at last!

I shall know all at least, now— Figaro kisses her hand again. Figaro and Susan still inwardly laughing Quickly then, Madam, let us repair the wrong which Love this Morning suffered at the impertinent intrusion of your Lord. This is not to be borne Darts between them, seizes Figaro by the Collar, while Susan escapes into the Pavilion on the left.

Pretends amazement My Lord! And is it you! Just arrived from Seville! But he is not there! I might as well have sought for this Page in my pocket! Here is the Packet again. Stand out of the way, Rascal—Hollo! To the Servants Guard that Door and some of you seize this Fellow.

You command, with absolute Authority, over all present, my Lord, except yourself. Be pleased, Sir, to declare, before this Company, who the—the—Woman is that just now ran into that Pavilion. Into that— Going to cross to the Pavilion on the right. Stopping him No, prevaricating Fiend; into that. Pointing to the other. Come forth, I say, shew yourself. Enter, dragging out the PAGE, still speaking and not looking at him till he gets on a line with the rest of the Company.

Happily, Madam, there is no Pledge of a Union, now so justly detested. After all the rest. Page flies to the other side of the stage. You shall find, however, he was not alone. Come, Madam, you must come out; I must not let you go since my Lord knows you are here.

Odzooks, my Lord, its a pleasant Trick, enough, to send me in, before all these good Folks, for my Daughter. Pardon me, my Lord, but you are too angry at present; let me go. Exit Doctor to the Pavilion. Fear nothing, Madam, fear nothing.

Here she comes, at last; bearing her own Shame and my Dishonour. Susan kneels to him, still hiding her Face. They all fall on their knees. Were the World to kneel I would be deaf.

At least I will make one of the Number. Susan drops her fan, the Count hears the voice of the Countess, looks round, and suddenly conceives the whole Trick they have been playing him. All the Company burst into a laugh: After the Blockade of Germany by the Royal Navy , however, only the Allied powers could purchase from them.

As a result, Imperial Germany sent secret agents to the United States to obstruct the production and delivery of war munitions that were intended to be used by its enemies. After midnight on July 30, a series of small fires were discovered on the pier. Some guards fled, fearing an explosion. Others attempted to fight the fires and eventually called the Jersey City Fire Department. Fragments from the explosion traveled long distances, some lodging in the Statue of Liberty and some in the clock tower of The Jersey Journal building in Journal Square , over a mile away, stopping the clock at 2: The explosion was the equivalent of an earthquake measuring between 5.

Some window panes in Times Square were shattered. The stained glass windows in St. Patrick's Church were destroyed. People as far away as Maryland were awakened by what they thought was an earthquake.

Immigrants being processed at Ellis Island had to be evacuated to lower Manhattan. Although one contemporary newspaper report estimated that up to seven [14] people died in the attack; 4 did definitely die, [15] [1] including a Jersey City policeman, [16] [17] a Lehigh Valley Railroad chief of police, [18] [19] a ten-week-old infant, [17] and the barge captain. Smaller explosions continued to occur for hours after the initial blast.

In the immediate aftermath of the explosion, two watchmen who had lit smudge pots to keep away mosquitoes were questioned by police but it soon determined that the smudge pots had not caused the fire and that the blast had likely been an accident.

Many years later, the explosion was traced to Michael Kristoff, [21] a Slovak immigrant. According to Kristoff, two of the guards at Black Tom were German agents. It is likely that the bombing involved some of the techniques developed by German agents working for German ambassador Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff and German Naval Intelligence officer Franz von Rintelen , using the cigar bombs developed by Doctor Walter Scheele.

Additional investigations by the Directorate of Naval Intelligence also found links to some members of the Irish " Clan na Gael " group, the Indian " Ghadar Party " and Communist elements.

The Russian government sued the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company operating the Black Tom Terminal on grounds that lax security there was no entrance gate; territory was unlighted [30] permitted the loss of their ammunition and argued that due to the failure to deliver them the manufacturer was obliged by the contract to replace them. The Statue of Liberty's torch has been closed to the public since the explosion due to structural damages.

The former Black Tom Island is at the end of Morris Pesin Drive in the southeastern corner of the park, where a plaque marks the spot of the explosion.

A circle of American flags complements the plaque, which stands east of the visitors' center. On July 30, the Black Tom munitions depot exploded rocking New York Harbor and sending residents tumbling from their beds.

The noise of the explosion was heard as far away as Maryland and Connecticut. On Ellis Island, terrified immigrants were evacuated by ferry to the Battery.

Shrapnel pierced the Statue of Liberty the arm of the Statue was closed to visitors after this. It is not known how many died. Was it an accident or planned? According to historians, the Germans sabotaged the Lehigh Valley munitions depot in order to stop deliveries being made to the British who had blockaded the Germans in Europe. You are walking on a site which saw one of the worse [ sic ] acts of terrorism in American history. A stained glass window at Our Lady of Czestochowa Catholic church memorialized the victims of the attack.

View of the Statue of Liberty from the site of the explosion: The bottom stained-glass windows have text in Polish to commemorate the explosion in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Black Tom explosion Black Tom pier shortly after the explosion.