Animals and Ethics

Human Capital and Sustainability

Human being
Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife or immortality. Biologically , it is the means through which a child is conceived and the lineage is passed on to the next generation. Agriculture - Agricultural Revolution 8: Xenophanes of Colophon Xenophanes c. It does this in its activity, its energeia, of being. Archived from the original on 21 April Form is the actuality of matter, which is pure potentiality.

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Ancient Greek Philosophy

The term falls outside the usual naming conventions for early humans and is used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe. Cro-Magnons lived from about 40, to 10, years ago in the Upper Paleolithic period of the Pleistocene epoch. For all intents and purposes these people were anatomically modern, only differing from their modern day descendants in Europe by their slightly more robust physiology and larger brain capacity than that of modern humans.

When they arrived in Europe about 40, years ago, they brought with them sculpture, engraving, painting, body ornamentation, music, and the painstaking decoration of utilitarian objects. Current research establishes that human beings are highly genetically homogeneous, meaning that the DNA of individual Homo sapiens is more alike than usual for most species.

Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah, noting that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species, propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs—no more than 10, and possibly as few as 1,—resulting in a very small residual gene pool.

Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one of those is the Toba catastrophe theory. There are two major scientific challenges in deducing the pattern of human evolution. For one, the fossil record remains fragmentary. Mayr notes that no fossils of hominids have been found for the period between 6 and 13 million years ago mya , the time when branching between the chimpanzee and human lineages is expected to have taken place. Furthermore, as Mayr notes, "most hominid fossils are extremely incomplete.

They may consist of part of a mandible, or the upper part of a skull without face and teeth, or only part of the extremities. Fossil evidence often allows a variety of interpretations, since the individual specimens may be reconstructed in a variety of ways Wells There are two dominant, and one might say polarizing, general views on the issue of human origins, the Out of Africa position and the multiregional position. Later, approximately , years ago, there was a second migration of hominids out of Africa, and this was modern H.

This view maintains a specific speciation event that led to H. The multiregional or continuity camp hold that since the origin of H. According to this view, hominids in China and Indonesia are the most direct ancestors of modern East Asians, those in Africa are the most direct ancestors of modern Africans, and the European populations either gave rise to modern Europeans or contributed significant genetic material to them, while their origins were in Africa or West Asia Kreger There is genetic flow to allow for the maintenance of one species , but not enough to prevent racial differentiation.

Overall, human evolution theory comprises two principal theories: Those related to the pattern of evolution and those related to the process of evolution. The theory of descent with modification addresses the pattern of evolution, and as applied to humans the theory is strongly supported by the fossil record, which provides evidence of skeletons that through time become more and more like the modern human skeleton.

In contrast, the theory of natural selection , which relates to the process of evolution is intrinsically more speculative as it relates to presumed causes. Substantial evidence has been marshaled for the fact that humans have descended from common ancestors by a process of branching descent with modification and for a primate origin of humans.

However, proposals for the specific ancestral-descendant relationships and for the process leading to humans tend to be speculative. And, while the theory of natural selection typically is central to scientific explanations for the process, evidence for natural selection being the directive or creative force is limited to extrapolation from the microevolutionary level changes within the level of species.

Historically, a major source of controversy has been the process by which humans have developed, whether by physical forces with an exclusively random component natural selection or by the creative force of a Creator God. Abrahamic religions believe that modern humans derive from an original couple Adam and Eve into whose material bodies God breathed spiritual life added a spirit or soul to complete the creation of a being uniquely different from animals.

Up until only around 10, years ago, all humans lived as hunter-gatherers with some communities persisting until this day. They generally lived in small, nomadic groups. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution. Developed independently by geographically distant populations, evidence suggests that agriculture first appeared in Southwest Asia, in the Fertile Crescent. Though there is evidence of earlier use of wild cereals , it was not until after B.

About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, with rice, rather than wheat, the primary crop. Access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals, and the use of metal tools. Agriculture also encouraged trade and cooperation, leading to complex societies.

Villages developed into thriving civilizations in regions such as the Middle East's Fertile Crescent. Around 6, years ago, the first proto- states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt , and the Indus Valley.

Military forces were formed for protection and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,—3, years ago, some states, such as Persia, China, and Rome , developed through conquest into the first expansive empires.

Influential religions, such as Judaism , originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism , a religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies.

In China, an advanced and urbanized economy promoted innovations such as printing and the compass , while the Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the fourteenth century.

Over the next years, exploration and imperialistic conquest brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence.

The Scientific Revolution in the seventeenth century and the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries promoted major innovations in transport , such as the railway and automobile ; energy development, such as coal and electricity ; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism.

As a result of such changes, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Although this has encouraged the growth of science, art, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction, and increased environmental destruction and pollution. Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock , or populations of prey for hunting.

However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation , urban planning , construction , transport , and manufacturing goods. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population.

Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change. Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to all climates.

Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica , the ocean depths, and space , although long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans 61 percent live in Asia. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas 14 percent , Africa 13 percent , and Europe 12 percent , with 0. Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions.

Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. Between and , two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of , no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in outer space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, ; however, humans have made robots that have visited other celestial bodies.

From to C. In , around 2. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime , especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge, and decreased susceptibility to rural famines. Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. The extinction of a number of species has been attributed to anthropogenic factors, such as human predation and habitat loss, and other negative impacts include pollution, widespread loss of wetlands and other ecosystems , alteration of rivers, and introduction of invasive species.

On the other hand, humans in the past century have made considerable efforts to reduce negative impacts and provide greater protection for the environment and other living organisms, through such means as environmental law, environmental education, and economic incentives.

The brain is a centralized mass of nerve tissue enclosed within the cranium skull of vertebrates. The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans, as well as the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. The brain controls "lower," or involuntary, autonomic activities such as the respiration, and digestion.

The brain also is critical to "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning , and abstraction PBS Mayr states that the human brain "seems not to have changed one single bit since the first appearance of Homo sapiens some , years ago.

A central issue in philosophy and religion is how the brain relates to the mind. The brain is defined as the physical and biological matter contained within the skull, responsible for all electrochemical neuronal processes.

The mind, however, is seen in terms of mental attributes, such as beliefs or desires. Mind is a concept developed by self-conscious humans trying to understand what is the self that is conscious and how does that self relate to its perceived world. Most broadly, mind is the organized totality of the mental processes of an organism and the structural and functional components on which they depend. Taken more narrowly, as it often is in scientific studies, mind denotes only cognitive activities and functions, such as perceiving, attending, thinking, problem solving, language, learning, and memory VandenBos Philosophers have long sought to understand what is mind and its relationship to matter and the body.

There is a concept, tracing back at least to Plato , Aristotle , and the Sankhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, that "mental" phenomena are, in some respects, "non-physical" distinct from the body.

For example, Saint Thomas Aquinas identified a person as being the composite substance of body and soul or mind , with soul giving form to body. Christian views after Aquinas have diverged to cover a wide spectrum, but generally they tend to focus on soul instead of mind, with soul referring to an immaterial essence and core of human identity and to the seat of reason , will, conscience , and higher emotions.

Rene Descartes established the clear mind-body dualism that has dominated the thought of the modern West. He introduced two assertions: First, that mind and soul are the same and that henceforth he would use the term mind and dispense with the term soul; Second, that mind and body were two distinct substances, one immaterial and one material, and the two existed independent of each other except for one point of interaction in the human brain.

As psychology became a science starting in the late nineteenth century and blossomed into a major scientific discipline in the twentieth century, the prevailing view in the scientific community came to be variants of physicalism with the assumption that all the functions attributed to mind are in one way or another derivative from activities of the brain.

Countering this mainstream view, a small group of neuroscientists has persisted in searching for evidence suggesting the possibility of a human mind existing and operating apart from the brain. In the late twentieth century, as diverse technologies related to studying the mind and body have been steadily improved, evidence has emerged suggesting such radical concepts as: The mind should be associated not only with the brain but with the whole body; and the heart may be a center of consciousness complementing the brain.

Some envision a physical mind that mirrors the physical body, guiding its instinctual activities and development, while adding the concept for humans of a spiritual mind that mirrors a spiritual body and including aspects like philosophical and religious thought.

The human brain is generally regarded as more capable of the various higher order activities, and more "intelligent" in general, than that of any other species. While other animals are capable of creating structures and using simple tools—mostly as a result of instinct and learning through mimicry—human technology is vastly more complex, constantly evolving and improving with time.

Even the most ancient human tools and structures are far more advanced than any structure or tool created by any other animal Sagan The human ability to think abstractly may be unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Humans are one of only six groups of animals to pass the mirror test—which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself—along with chimpanzees , orangutans , dolphins , and possibly pigeons.

In October , three elephants at the Bronx Zoo also passed this test Plotnik et al. Humans under the age of 2 typically fail this test Palmer However, this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks Coveney The brain perceives the external world through the senses , and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time.

Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above.

The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative center called the "mind," but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: Different kinds of "software" running in parallel Dennett Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system , in the field of neurology , the more behavioral in the field of psychology , and a sometimes loosely-defined area between in the field of psychiatry , which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders.

Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence , neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields.

Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind.

Perception , learning, problem solving, memory, attention , language, and emotion are all well-researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology.

Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology.

Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.

This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience Block Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious.

The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology , evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well.

Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment. Theories in psychology , like the construction of the ego as suggested in the mirror stage by Jacques Lacan , reminds us about the possibility that self-consciouness and self-reflection may be at least in part a human construction. Various attempts have been made to identify a single behavioral characteristic that distinguishes humans from all other animals.

Some anthropologists think that readily observable characteristics tool -making and language are based on less easily observable mental processes that might be unique among humans: The ability to think symbolically, in the abstract or logically , although several species have demonstrated some abilities in these areas.

Nor is it clear at what point exactly in human evolution these traits became prevalent. They may not be restricted to the species Homo sapiens, as the extinct species of the Homo genus for example, Homo neanderthalensis , Homo erectus are believed to also have been adept tool makers and may also have had linguistic skills. Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings.

Motivation is based on emotion, such as the search for satisfaction positive emotional experiences , and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses.

Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics, motivation is often seen to be based on financial incentives, moral incentives, or coercive incentives. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Happiness , or being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition that a human can have—a condition of mental and physical health.

Others may define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society , inner peace, and so forth.

Human emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, like love , admiration, or joy , contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow.

There is often a distinction seen between refined emotions, which are socially learned, and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in those cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state.

In some cultural medical theories, to provide an example, emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered to be a complex neural trait of many domesticated and a few non-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed.

Still, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. Humans are known for forming monogamous pair bonds and for extensive parental care, establishing families of parents and children. They also are known for relationships based on "love. Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. Depending on context, love can have a wide variety of intended meanings, including sexual attraction.

Psychologists and religious teachings, however, define love more precisely, as living for the sake of another, motivated by heart-felt feelings of caring, affection, and responsibility for the other's well-being.

Perhaps the best context in which to develop such love is the family , where the love that is given and received is of various kinds. Love can involve the sacrifice and investment that parents willingly give on behalf of their children , and children, in turn, can offer their parents filial devotion and respect.

Siblings can care for and help one another in various ways. The love between spouses is a world in itself. Grandparents typically bear a profound regard for their grandchildren. All of these types of love have their distinctive features. Although love is universally desired, it can be fraught with infidelity, deceit, possessiveness, unrealistic expectations, jealousy, and hate.

Love, in fact, is at the root of much pain and conflict in the world. Marriages break down when the passion of romance cools. Human sexuality refers to the expression of sexual sensation and related intimacy between human beings. Formulating goals forces one to think about desired ends and to anticipate the future over the long- rather than short-term. Goals are broad, general statements and as such they can neither be measured nor be fully expressed by any one statement.

Goals are intentions to act that have meaning, specifically within the context of the effort at hand. The goals of a training programme for trainers of nutrition educators may be narrowly focused on the outcome behaviours or qualifications of the trainees. However, goals should be constructed keeping in mind how the ultimate outcomes affect institutions, organisations, or the larger community.

An example of a nutrition education goal might be to increase the abilities and improve behaviours of pregnant women to select high protein foods during their pregnancies, which would decrease low birth weight, especially among teenage mothers. Objectives Goals must be concretely expressed through a statement of objectives. As measurable expressions of desired results, objectives provide the basis for evaluation.

The formulation of objectives should incorporate four characteristics: Objectives should ideally reflect the "end" of the planning efforts, rather than the "means", that is, they should refer back to the larger goal.

One example of an objective derived from the sample goal given above might be: Behavioural objectives Behavioural objectives for the outcomes of in-service training must be realistic and obtainable. Nutrition educators must include as many as possible, of the many factors that influence nutritional status and dietary habits in the planning of goals and objectives.

Also, objectives must be limited to those that can be addressed within the framework of the nutrition education effort. Pilot studies to determine if goals and timetables are realistic may be helpful. Time is usually limited for various reasons including funding, availability of trainers and trainees, and changing environment.

However, trainees must understand that producing the desired results - sustained behaviour change - takes a considerable effort over a long time to learn, to implement and to measure. If nutrition education campaigns are institutionalised and fit into larger objectives they may receive more support. It is important to spend the most resources in terms of time and money on the most important things. For example, spending a disproportionate amount of money on evaluation may produce an excellent evaluation tool but a sub-standard education effort as a result of the limited resources allotted.

Competency-based objectives "Competency-based" refers to objectives that are geared to trainees attaining competence; this is accomplished by including tasks that can be carried out and evaluated during the process of training, that demonstrate the required knowledge and skills.

Competency-based objectives should be established on each specific component of trainees' future tasks and stated explicitly m planning training and during its implementation.

They should be evaluated to ensure that trainees are adequately prepared. For the above example, a competency-based objective would be: Manage for continuous feedback Managing a nutrition education effort requires continuous feedback so that corrections can be made quickly. Responsibilities of all participants, trainers and nutrition educators alike, must be clearly stated initially, accountability stressed, and adherence to plans monitored.

Records should be kept by all participants for quality assurance and feedback as well as for assessing ultimate effectiveness. Programme information and communication systems should be decided upon early in the project. They are especially critical if management is not centralised and in programmes covering large geographic areas. Central management should assure consistent messages, training procedures, materials, etc. Resource allocations Resources are allocated in the planning stages of the project.

However, good management of implementation includes monitoring of expenditures and reallocations, as there will inevitably be additional demands for resources. Occasionally adjustments may be needed. These allocations must be considered carefully in relation to pre-planned components, the benefits to goals and objectives, and other anticipated needs.

Develop training manuals and teaching resources The educational and cultural background of the target audience must be considered when developing teaching materials and resources. Reading levels, quantitative and numerical ability, and preferred styles of presentation of learning materials should be considered.

All trainees will benefit from clearly stated directions. Active rather than passive learning techniques include demonstrations, supervised practice, and use of a variety of media including slides and videotapes, which help trainees observe, absorb, process, and demonstrate the knowledge and skills being taught. Build flexibility into development of complete training manuals and resources Training manuals should include specific materials needed for the future training sessions of nutrition educators.

They might include outlines of the training sessions with appropriate and specific objectives, basic information to be taught to participants, learning activities role plays, case studies and field work , supplementary articles or information, a bibliography of reference materials, and handouts and worksheets which can be reproduced Armstrong, It is wise to allow for flexibility in the organization of manuals and teaching materials, so that feedback from the trainees can be incorporated into beneficial changes.

Teaching resources should enrich and expand upon materials in the training manuals. Implement training programmes for the adult learner Consider the special characteristics of adult learners to motivate and encourage them Trainee characteristics that are important in planning in-service training includes trainees' readiness to learn, their learning potential, interests and past experiences, as well as their information and knowledge base, and their competence levels with respect to required skills.

Their degree of independence e. Like all adult learners, trainees benefit when they see how their past experiences and capabilities can be employed in learning. In-service instruction of trainers should include a discussion of adult learning principles and examples of their application in the training sessions themselves. Table 1 presents Grabowski's list of competencies of adult educators that are relevant for training of both the trainer and nutrition educators.

Use instructional methods that are suitable in content and cater to adult learners' preferences A person who has command of information does not necessarily have a grasp of effective methods of communication and information delivery. Teaching is a skill that is essential for implementing adult learning.

This not only considers the learning styles of the audience, but the way information is packaged to teach the learner. Certain material lends itself better to some communication methods than others. For example, it is very difficult to teach cooking methods by instruction alone - demonstrations are critical. The most effective methods also vary depending on the characteristics of individual learners, and their favourite or most comfortable learning styles.

Since no one style is favoured by everyone, it is best to present the material using a variety of methods to accommodate individual variation in learning styles, as well as in the type of material to be taught. Integration of didactic learning and "hands-on" practical experiences for skill development usually enhances learning best, regardless of prior training.

According to an extensive literature review of nutrition education efforts in the United States, behaviourally oriented methods of nutrition education are more likely to be effective in bringing about changes than didactic approaches. Including methods of behavioural modification in training sessions, however, requires competent educators and more time for reinforcement of the necessary skills, both of which make inputs for these approaches more costly.

Characteristics of a competent adult educator Base training on sound theory The theoretical basis for planning interventions for changing health behaviours rests on models of behaviour.

The most common theories mentioned in the nutrition education literature are summarised in Table 2. Glanz and Rudd surveyed nutrition education and consumer behaviour professionals both in fields providing information to influence food choice for their opinions on which theories and models were most familiar and useful. Those in both fields selected a few familiar and current theories, but respondents concurred that theories were not all-important as there are frequently gaps between research and practice.

The practical application of these theories is difficult since no single model of behaviour change available today fits all situations. While theories attempt to identify all factors which may influence the outcome behaviour, they are simplifications of reality.

Also, different theories are more successfully applied at one stage of learning than at another. Therefore, it is difficult to use a single paradigm for the whole intervention process. Nevertheless, theory-based nutrition education efforts and the use of theoretical models to help construct training efforts are useful since they permit the educator to methodically incorporate the influence of motivators, barriers, and other influential factors in the planning and implementation of nutrition education efforts.

Eclectic models may be most appropriate. Influences components include the environment, providing incentives and disincentives; situations which provide consequences, or "expectancies"; and skills behavioural capacity , and self-efficacy, the ability to do what needs to be done.

Positive reinforcement is important for this component Bandura, Represents interaction and influence of factors in the social environment as they reflect and modify behaviour. The stages of readiness include pre-contemplation through contemplation and eventual action.

For more complex applications, the transtheoretical across several theories model posits relationships among the stages and processes of change Prochaska, Attitudes and attitudinal assessment of target audience are emphasised. Health Belief Model Weights various factors influencing health behaviour change. People more likely to change are thought to be the ones who believe they are susceptible to a stated risk which has potentially serious consequences, when the solution offered is likely to decrease the susceptibility or severity of outcome, and the anticipated costs or barriers to participation are outweighed by this benefit.

Further, those with high self-efficacy, such that they feel they can do what needs to be done to improve the situation, are most likely to change Rosenstock Does not reach those who are at risk but do not see themselves as such, due to denial or lack of information. Does not include non-health-related reasons for behaviour i.

The focus on individual determinants can lead to victim-blaming. Social Action Theory Based on the information processing theory, people are assumed to choose the alternatives which provide them with the most "good" outcomes and the fewest "undesirable" outcomes. Examines people's intentions to behave a certain way and assigns a probability of certain actions based on intentions, influence of others, etc.

Azjen and Fishbein Useful for explaining food-related behaviours over which people have control. Acknowledges the real world in that it considers social influences on certain behaviours. The more options that are identified along the continuum from intention to desired outcome, the better the predictive value of the model. Follow a four step approach: First the instructor models or demonstrates new responses and action patterns.

Second, guided, and increasingly independent practice in those thoughts and behaviours is provided. Feedback on the appropriateness and accuracy of responses is provided.

Finally, trainee behaviours are reinforced by support and encouragement. Gradually the new habit or skill may have naturally reinforcing consequences which provide further rewards. Develop motivational techniques to market messages Without motivation to act on a specific message, information is useless. The educator must find out what factors motivate people to change their health behaviours, provide information that will motivate them, and deliver it in a context which promotes change.

Training that motivates and reinforces the confidence of the nutrition educator, as well as training that includes techniques which improve these skills in counselling is helpful Parlato, Green, Fishman, Some questions answered through qualitative investigative techniques which contribute to developing motivational approaches and messages are listed in Table 3.

Qualitative methods such as focus groups and surveys help to provide data needed to develop motivational techniques to personalise the audience assessment.

Lopez used focus groups with low-income women to determine, develop and instrument measuring the effects of certain psychosocial influences on eating in this population. Questions potentially answered through focus groups and surveys of target groups What motivates and reinforces the health behaviour in question?

What are the barriers negative motivators to improved health behaviour? Who considers themselves at risk? How aware of the consequences of the behaviour are members of the population? How deterred by consequences are they? Select appropriate methods of education and communication for target groups Effective education and communication techniques that are derived from marketing and the behavioural sciences are often appropriate and effective for changing nutrition-related behaviours at the community level Parlato, Green, Fishman, ; Cabanero-Verzosa, ; UNICEF, This is called social marketing.

Nutrition communication has been most effective when several steps are taken Parlato, Green, Fishman, First, a limited number of specific behaviours significantly affecting the target group's nutritional status are selected.

Second, small behaviour changes that provide a viable choice within the time and cost constraints of the household and community are targeted. Third, messages tailored for each of the groups of people that influence the intended beneficiary are employed using communicators and language that are meaningful to each group.

These messages must be conveyed with enough salience and for a long enough time that the ideas enter into "normal" conversations in the target group and are eventually adopted as behaviours. Finally community involvement in message development and pretesting is also helpful. Social marketing seems to be an effective communication technique, regardless of the information one is conveying, since it emphasises getting the message to the consumer rather than to the communicator.

In this case, the consumers are both the nutrition educators as trainees , and the target population. When applied to nutrition education, using the social marketing perspective requires that trainers prepare nutrition educators who are particularly knowledgeable about their audience and involve them in finding solutions to problems of inadequate nutritional practices.

Nutrition educators should be able to: Supervised practice in the use of these techniques is also helpful. Familiarise nutrition educators with the use of social marketing techniques in crafting programmes Social marketing refers to a process of delivering highly appealing audience-specific messages. It draws on insights from marketing and advertising. It requires finding out what people need and want, and then developing a programme based on those appeals Novelli, ; Ngo, The objectives of social marketing include disseminating new data and information on healthy eating practices to individuals, offsetting the negative effects of a practice or promotional effort by another organization or group, and motivating people to move from intention to action in implementing sound dietary practices.

Social marketing incorporates the influence of the audience's motivators and reinforcers into planning nutrition education campaigns. Not all steps involved in planning a social marketing programme involve nutrition education. However each step helps define the appropriate nutrition information and best choices of communication to use to reach goals Young, Steps for planning a social marketing campaign are listed in Table 4 Ngo, Trainers of nutrition educators should introduce these steps in training sessions.

Social marketing has been used for planning and implementing a variety of community nutrition initiatives in the United States including Project LEAN, Pawtucket Heart Health Programme Lefebvre, , Stanford Five-City Project Farquhar, , Giant Foods' campaigns to promote heart health and decrease cancer risks, and a campaign to increase breast-feeding by limited income mothers Bryant et al, Steps involved in planning a social marketing campaign 1. Identify the problem 2.

Segment the audience 3. Target the audience 4. Position the "product" 5. Design the "product" 6. Implement and assess effectiveness When individual instruction and interaction is less feasible and messages are directed to the general public, such as in social marketing, nutrition education message conveyed via mass media must adhere closely to sound principles of communication in order to be effective. Some characteristics of successful messages for bringing about health behaviour change in populations are summarised in Table 5 McAlister et al.

Use appealing and appropriate instructional methods in training Personal contact is an effective way to influence dietary behaviour, so face-to-face presentations, demonstrations, and counselling are helpful in nutrition communication. Educators are able to do more effective nutrition counselling on the individual or group level if they have been exposed to these techniques and see them during training.

Instructional methods that are appropriate for the audience of trainers must be selected. Frequently a combination of methods is appropriate. Matching method with specific training needs will help to maximise both method and training effectiveness. Table 6, adapted from Pont , describes a variety of common instructional methods and some of their distinguishing characteristics.

Pont points out that research indicates that "learners retain about: Individual and group skills that are important include active-listening, asking questions, and using appropriate language and gestures. Communication and teaching methods important for working with individuals and groups are listed in Table 7.

Working with individuals is more time consuming, but in that extra time the trainer or nutrition educator can potentially provide instruction based on a more thorough understanding of that member of the target population. Groups can be an efficient way of reaching several people with similar learning needs and interests that capitalise upon social supports and reinforcement by peers. Techniques for managing group dynamics are useful tools. Often a combination of group and individual instructional methods are most effective for nutrition educators Parlato, Green, Fishman, Trainers should use these techniques in training and include them as part of the curricula devised for nutrition educators.

Passing these skills on to the public successfully will result in an audience more capable of critically evaluating information and suggestions set before them, and appropriately applying recommendations in a variety of conditions. Both trainers and nutrition educators need to develop their own critical thinking skills if they are to be effective at teaching these to nutrition educators and the public, respectively.

Several references are now available for teaching such skills, and these should be incorporated into training sessions Plavacan et al. Know and use the "tools" of nutrition education Knowledge of the country's available "tools" for nutrition education is also essential in helping to keep messages consistent and to provide broad guidelines with which to work.

Different subject matter areas within food and nutrition such as food preparation, purchasing, budgeting, medical therapies, prevention of deficiencies, improving nutritional status are usually so interrelated that it is possible to teach beginning with a point of individual interest, and eventually convey the message specifically targeted to the population at risk Brink, Having standard tools for reinforcement of these messages allows basic information to be conveyed, while also responding to interests in other areas of interest to the population.

Use up-to-date instructional technologies The potential for new computer-based technologies to increase and improve access to information by parts of the population in industrialised and developing countries, where much of the population is far away from a city or information centre, is tremendous.

Other technologies can also enhance teaching world-wide. Table 8 shows some up-to-date instructional technologies. They include distance learning by radio and TV, and computer-assisted technologies, among others.

The training of instructors in the use of new technologies needs to be thorough enough for them to use them in their own teaching.

Provision of backup resources, such as clearly written instructional manuals that include directions for troubleshooting, are useful. Summary of Instructional Technologies to use in training nutrition educators Technology Pros Cons Nutrition education example Radio Widely available Not interactive Targeted messages to hard-to-reach audiences in developing countries; public service announcements Television TV Widely available Need broadcasting capabilities; not easily portable; not interactive Public TV programmes, public service messages Videotape Entertaining if short, can be specific to training needs Need television; expensive to make; tape sizes must match VCR to show in different places; not interactive Videos made by organisations with specific, targeted message i.

Many external, practical factors limit the application of technologies in training of nutrition educators, including unwillingness on the part of instructors to use them, lack of money, skills or facilities, or lack of back-up technical support. Small, mundane details must be attended to and can be quite disruptive if ignored: With the advent of more recent distance learning technologies, the geographical location of trainees and means of access to them are also considerations.

Table 9 provides some ideal conditions and brief comments regarding different training lengths. Training sessions often need to be compressed into several days of intense instruction. It is easy to become bored if the teaching styles are monotonous. Incorporating discussions and hands-on exercises can help to break up long blocks of time and lessen fatigue.

Table 10 contrasts the pros and cons of centralised, on site, and distance learning locations. Plan field experiences to bring training to life After some initial instruction, it is helpful to provide field experiences that offer the opportunity for relevant interactive and hands-on experiences for trainees.

They also provide the instructor with a chance to observe and evaluate trainees in a setting outside of the "classroom". Planned experiences may relate to any of the topics already covered or those coming in the future.

Such experiences will help build a high level of competency and comfort with all material and techniques in trainees.

Examples of such field experiences include trainer-observed instruction by nutrition educators in groups local clinic or with individuals home visit.

Options and pros and cons of different training lengths Training Frequency Ideal Conditions Comments Consecutive days Full but not long days i. If travel is required, consecutive days may be the only option Once a week Several hours weekly over consecutive weeks Provides opportunities for practice in between sessions and reinforcement of material through follow up in subsequent sessions Initial training with follow up sessions Short initial training with regular, on-going supervision and evaluation Allows for ongoing guidance and learning after main, initial training.

Provides opportunities for practice between training sessions Table Obvious inappropriate behaviours, such as cultural biases, prejudice, poor communication, judgmental and condescending attitudes, need to be discussed if individuals possessing these characteristics were not screened out while selecting potential nutrition educators.

Pre-existing value judgements by nutrition educators may have an impact on client interrelationships and can affect the way they communicate nutrition messages to individuals. This applies to issues involving some of the more obvious and sensitive possibilities for discrepancies between nutrition educator and audience, including class, race, and gender. The inculcation of self-direction in learning and practice is a requirement of a good adult educator, and also a reflection of good in-service training and education.

A nutrition educator who can separately assess each teaching situation and adjust the experience accordingly, as well as critically evaluate the success of each contact and revise future efforts accordingly, is one who will be well-equipped to take on the task of facilitating nutrition behaviour change in a target population. Evaluate training efforts Classify the type of outcomes desired Outcomes can be regarded as cognitive knowledge , behavioural response to information , health anthropometric, biochemical and clinical measurements, morbidity and mortality statistics and system institutionalisation, in that a message is incorporated in the content of other development messages and projects.

These need to be explicitly stated. The specific parameters for success, or the size of effects may change in magnitude or specification over time. Edwards, Mullis and Clarke describe several issues in evaluation research as important to consider for a thorough and comprehensive evaluation of nutrition education programmes. First, evaluation efforts should be flexible and interactive, and be used throughout the development of a new programme so that findings can be used to change future programme and subsequent evaluation procedures.

Second, assessing qualitative data as well as quantitative data provides useful information, for example instructor and participant perceptions of course materials and instructional strategies. Integrating measures of process and performance reveals clues to explaining performance data. A closer look at process includes evaluation measures of a programme at each level of the organisational structure i. Measure short-term effects Trainee competence with respect to knowledge processes and skills must be assessed both during and after training, to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the training and the achievement of the individual.

Evaluation of the trainee should be based on the objectives of the training session - what the trainee must know to function effectively in the field. Paper and pencil evaluations by pre- and post-tests, quizzes and practicals, as well as evaluation by observation, such as requiring presentation or hands-on demonstrations, are both usually needed to assess the abilities of each trainee. Mid-course evaluations can provide immediate feedback and it is often helpful to build-in some test at the end of each training session.

Also, participant feedback following training sessions provides valuable information for the planning of future sessions, and it should be solicited. Measure long-term effects Evaluation of trainees immediately following the programme is both necessary and useful. Long-term evaluation measures the "true" effectiveness long-term outcome of the training effort against the long-term goals and objectives of the larger intervention.

These may be changes in knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour. Evaluation methods must be appropriate for the goals and objectives of the programme. Regardless of the type of outcome desired or the time frame for its accomplishment, long-term evaluation must include baseline measurements on the same population, or some acceptable proxy for it.

In interpreting results, secular trends and other possible factors contributing to behaviour change measured during the time of the intervention must be considered. Humans change their behaviour for many reasons. For example, measures may indicate that nutrition educators were successfully trained and performed their tasks well, but behaviours in the population did not change as expected in the given amount of time.

Many uncontrolled variables, such as a sudden recession, might prevent learners from putting principles into practice because of lack of money. Today it is nearly impossible to credit any one message or circumstance for doing this. In less industrialised settings with a dearth of public health efforts, a single intervention's effects may be much easier to quantify. Reformulate and improve training based on results Short- and long-term evaluation results are useless if they are not used to improve training programmes in the future.

Analysis of both process and outcome evaluation together provides the most information with which to locate and revise contributors to less than desirable outcomes.

Training programmes for nutrition educators After the nutrition educators have been successfully trained and have demonstrated that they are knowledgeable, competent and skilled, more specific areas of expertise must be acquired before they are ready to go into communities to teach.

This section addresses these more specific issues. Base programming on knowledge of food, nutritional needs, and problems of the population and sub-groups by employing needs assessments and other techniques At the outset, the population most in need of nutrition education needs to be identified, and nutrition educators need to know how to do this. Such needy groups often include infants and young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly.

Populations may also be targeted by risk factors for disease i. Conduct qualitative and quantitative baseline assessments of target group Baseline assessments of the target population with respect to their food and nutrition problems, needs, and attitudes, are crucial to developing a nutrition education campaign which will change behaviour and improve health.

Knowledge of the audience is critical for health messages. Such information is used widely today in social marketing as well as in product-focused messages by marketers. Qualitative methods of needs assessment include using focus groups and surveys, or compilation of information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the target group. Quantitative assessment tools include anthropometric measurements, such as height and weight plotted on growth charts , morbidity and mortality statistics, information on dietary intake, and information on biochemical and clinical measures of nutritional status from screening tests or surveys.

Identify factors to be changed in the target population Identify barriers to better dietary habits and better health Once the population needing help is identified and characterised through the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, the next step the nutrition educator takes is to identify major factors affecting food habits that can be changed.

In addition to lack of knowledge, other factors influencing nutritional status and dietary habits usually include economic, cultural, and social factors, individual preferences, lifestyles, and time constraints.

Homo habilis - extinct species of upright East African hominid having some advanced humanlike characteristics. Homo sapiens - the only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools; brain volume at least cc. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis , Neandertal , Neandertal man , Neanderthal , Neanderthal man - extinct robust human of Middle Paleolithic in Europe and western Asia.

Homo rhodesiensis , Rhodesian man - a primitive hominid resembling Neanderthal man but living in Africa. Smith manned the reception desk in the morning".

Does your man cuddle you enough? Related words adjectives anthropic , anthropoid , anthropoidal like andromania fear androphobia , anthropophobia. Quotations "Man is only a reed, the weakest thing in nature; but he is a thinking reed" [Blaise Pascal Pensées ] "Man is the measure of all things" [Protagoras] "Man is heaven's masterpiece" [Francis Quarles Emblems ] "There are many wonderful things, and nothing is more wonderful than man" [Sophocles Antigone ] "Man is a noble animal, splendid in ashes, and pompous in the grave" [Thomas Browne Hydriotaphia ] "Man is an embodied paradox, a bundle of contradictions" [Charles Colton Lacon ] "Man has but three events in his life: He is not conscious of his birth, he suffers at his death and he forgets to live" [Jean de la Bruyère The Characters, or the Manners of the Age ] "The four stages of man are infancy, childhood, adolescence and obsolescence" [Art Linkletter A Child's Garden of Misinformation ] "Man is a useless passion" [Jean-Paul Sartre L'Être et le néant ] "Glory to Man in the highest!

Hymn of Man ] "I sometimes think that God in creating man somewhat overestimated his ability" [Oscar Wilde] "What a piece of work is man!

A member of the human race: A member of a law-enforcement agency. Mann Mensch bemannen Figur Herr. N men pl 1. Hundreds of men, women and children; a four-man team. He's independent, tough, strong, brave — a real man! Get on with your work, man, and stop complaining!

I took three of his men in one move. The colonel manned the guns with soldiers from our regiment. He died before he reached manhood. He took her refusal to marry him as an insult to his manhood.

He worked for the benefit of all mankind. He is strong and manly. When the crane broke down, they had to manhandle the crates on to the boat. You'll break all the china if you manhandle it like that! There's a shortage of manpower in the building industry. He has only one manservant. He was found guilty of manslaughter. The wives accompanied their menfolk.

Do you sell menswear? They rose as one man to applaud his speech. The man in the street often has little interest in politics. Shakespeare was perhaps Britain's greatest man of letters. You can speak freely — we're all men of the world. They voted to a man to accept the proposal. References in classic literature? If the will of every man were free, that is, if each man could act as he pleased, all history would be a series of disconnected incidents.

But the back-fat, the kidneys, and the tongues - these shall go into other mouths than thine and mine, old man. One apostle thought all men should go to farming, and another that no man should buy or sell, that the use of money was the cardinal evil; another that the mischief was in our diet, that we eat and drink damnation.

Beside each man lay his bow and arrows and a huge club.

Human African trypanosomiasis