Another method was to seal the food by cooking it in sugar or honey or fat, in which it was then stored. The most prevalent butcher's meats were pork , chicken and other domestic fowl ; beef , which required greater investment in land, was less common. A meal would ideally begin with easily digestible fruit, such as apples. Subjecting food to a number of chemical processes such as smoking , salting , brining , conserving or fermenting also made it keep longer. As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol. To sneak off to enjoy private company was considered a haughty and inefficient egotism in a world where people depended very much on each other. While an average peasant household often made do with firewood collected from the surrounding woodlands, the major kitchens of households had to cope with the logistics of daily providing at least two meals for several hundred people.
A few quality studies have been carried out over the years, starting in 1998 with a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 135 adults over 12 weeks published in The Journal of the American Medical Association.
They found no evidence that hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in weight loss products made from garcinia cambogia, produced significant weight loss. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2004 published a systematic review of meta-analyses and clinical trials on dietary supplements for weight loss by complementary medicine researchers at the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth.
None of the over-the-counter weight loss aids worked, including garcinia cambogia. Late in 2010 the peer-reviewed Journal of Obesity published a meta-analysis of studies testing the garcinia as a weight loss aid.