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Please share this page! I am NOT responsible for any billing disputes, nor do I wanna hear about it. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.

The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol.

Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency. The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.

In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly. The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters.

Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.

Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself.

The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison. Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months.

In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread. A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids. AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand.

The history of the U. The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone. By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U.

In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.

Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person.

Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark, [] France, [] the Netherlands [] and Sweden. United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers. It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.

Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.

As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents.

In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of A year later, the DEA seized In the first three months of , Australian customs reported a record seizures of AAS shipments.

Illegal AAS are sometimes sold at gyms and competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. AAS, alone and in combination with progestogens , have been studied as potential male hormonal contraceptives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about androgens as medications. For androgens as natural hormones, see Androgen. Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Illegal trade in anabolic steroids. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. British Journal of Pharmacology. Houglum J, Harrelson GL, eds. Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers 2nd ed.

Int J Sports Med. Mini Rev Med Chem. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases". Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training. Clinical Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment. Royal College of Physicians. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed. Food and Drug Administration.

Retrieved 21 June A systematic review and meta-analysis". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. Clinics in Liver Disease. The named reference Llewellyn was invoked but never defined see the help page.

Neidle 19 March Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry - E-Book. Do testosterone injections increase libido for elderly hypogonadal patients? Retrieved November 17, Retrieved December 5, Freter 30 July Perry's The Chemotherapy Source Book. J Womens Health Larchmt. Results from four national surveys". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Med Sci Sports Exerc. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Journal of Health Psychology.

Medicine and science in sports and exercise. Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. In Katzung, Bertram G. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure". Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: Handb Exp Pharmacol Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.

J Sci Med Sport. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Adolescent Health. The Journal of emergency medicine. Clin J Sport Med. University of California — San Francisco.

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. Archived PDF from the original on 20 June Customers may get these coupons from various sources, including national newspapers and the Internet, with web sites offering free printable grocery coupons can be printed at home and use them at retail store. Some major grocery chains also produce digital coupons that may be loaded onto the retailer's loyalty card at home, or at a coupon dispensing machine located in store.

In , the top five vehicles for distributing consumer packaged goods coupons in the U. There are coupon-providing websites that provide customers with coupons of various stores.

These sites accumulate coupons from various sources. Clipping coupons from newspapers has been the most popular way to obtain coupons, though Internet and Mobile Phone coupons are gaining wide popularity. Some retailers and companies use verification methods such as unique barcodes , coupon ID numbers, holographic seals, and watermarked paper as protection from unauthorized copying or use.

Other than newspaper, there are also coupon book publishers and retailers who compile vouchers and coupons into books, either for sale or free. Online retailers often refer to coupons as "coupon codes", "promotional codes", "promotion codes", "discount codes", "keycodes", "promo codes", "surplus codes", "portable codes", "shopping codes", "voucher codes", "reward codes", "discount vouchers", "referral codes" or "source codes".

Internet coupons typically provide reduced cost or free shipping, a specific dollar, percentage discount or to earn cashback while some offer to encourage consumers to purchase specific products or to purchase from specific retailers. Because paper coupons would be difficult to distribute and redeem, typically secret words or codes are distributed for consumers to type in at checkout.

Marketers can use different codes for different channels or groups in order to differentiate response rates. A mobile coupon is an electronic ticket solicited and or delivered to a mobile phone that can be exchanged for financial discount or rebate when purchasing product or service. Coupons are usually issued by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods or retailers, to be used in retail stores as part of a sales promotion.

The customer redeems the coupon at store or online. In some cases, customers may redeem the mobile coupon at the point of sale. What is unique about mobile coupons is the memory of information in the coupons often outlast the expiration dates of the coupons themselves, triggering actual purchases at later dates.

Mobile coupons are popular among U. The primary success factors for the SMS campaigns are discount size, how the discount value is framed as a gift or percent off and the timing of the campaign. Many retailers support the redemption of email and paper coupons via mobile devices.

In addition to distributing such offers via their own email lists, SMS subscriptions, and apps, they are also often made available through coupon applications. A mobile app coupon can be either a regular coupon for redemption discount value or discount percentage used at checkout distributed by the app-makers or unique, personal sharing codes owned by each user to recruit new users with referral benefits e.

The latter form requires personal sharing on behalf of users to their personal networks. Depending on the jurisdiction , coupons may or may not reduce the sales tax which must be paid by the consumer.

This is often determined by who sponsors the coupon. If the coupon is issued by the retailer, the product was never offered at the original price and the coupon represents a reduction in the amount paid and the tax.

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