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Bacterial Biofilm: Its Composition, Formation and Role in Human Infections
Tropical Pest Management 32 1: Archived from the original on February 12, Micronuclei in red blood cells of the newt Pleurodeles waltl Michah: Summary of toxicology data: The beneficial effects of soil organisms on agricultural productivity that may be affected include:. Pseudomonas oceani Wang and Sun , sp. Drug Metabolism Letters

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The non-absorbed part of the light spectrum is what gives photosynthetic organisms their color e. The light-dependent reactions are of two forms: In the non-cyclic reaction, the photons are captured in the light-harvesting antenna complexes of photosystem II by chlorophyll and other accessory pigments see diagram at right.

The absorption of a photon by the antenna complex frees an electron by a process called photoinduced charge separation. The antenna system is at the core of the chlorophyll molecule of the photosystem II reaction center. That freed electron is transferred to the primary electron-acceptor molecule, pheophytin. The electron enters a chlorophyll molecule in Photosystem I. There it is further excited by the light absorbed by that photosystem.

The electron is then passed along a chain of electron acceptors to which it transfers some of its energy. The energy delivered to the electron acceptors is used to move hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. The cyclic reaction takes place only at photosystem I.

Once the electron is displaced from the photosystem, the electron is passed down the electron acceptor molecules and returns to photosystem I, from where it was emitted, hence the name cyclic reaction. The NADPH is the main reducing agent produced by chloroplasts, which then goes on to provide a source of energetic electrons in other cellular reactions.

Its production leaves chlorophyll in photosystem I with a deficit of electrons chlorophyll has been oxidized , which must be balanced by some other reducing agent that will supply the missing electron. The excited electrons lost from chlorophyll from photosystem I are supplied from the electron transport chain by plastocyanin. However, since photosystem II is the first step of the Z-scheme , an external source of electrons is required to reduce its oxidized chlorophyll a molecules.

The source of electrons in green-plant and cyanobacterial photosynthesis is water. Two water molecules are oxidized by four successive charge-separation reactions by photosystem II to yield a molecule of diatomic oxygen and four hydrogen ions; the electrons yielded are transferred to a redox-active tyrosine residue that then reduces the oxidized chlorophyll a called P that serves as the primary light-driven electron donor in the photosystem II reaction center.

That photo receptor is in effect reset and is then able to repeat the absorption of another photon and the release of another photo-dissociated electron. The oxidation of water is catalyzed in photosystem II by a redox-active structure that contains four manganese ions and a calcium ion; this oxygen-evolving complex binds two water molecules and contains the four oxidizing equivalents that are used to drive the water-oxidizing reaction Dolai's S-state diagrams.

The hydrogen ions released contribute to the transmembrane chemiosmotic potential that leads to ATP synthesis. Oxygen is a waste product of light-dependent reactions, but the majority of organisms on Earth use oxygen for cellular respiration , including photosynthetic organisms. In the light-independent or "dark" reactions, the enzyme RuBisCO captures CO 2 from the atmosphere and, in a process called the Calvin-Benson cycle , it uses the newly formed NADPH and releases three-carbon sugars, which are later combined to form sucrose and starch.

The overall equation for the light-independent reactions in green plants is [24]: Carbon fixation produces the intermediate three-carbon sugar product, which is then converted to the final carbohydrate products.

The simple carbon sugars produced by photosynthesis are then used in the forming of other organic compounds, such as the building material cellulose , the precursors for lipid and amino acid biosynthesis, or as a fuel in cellular respiration.

The latter occurs not only in plants but also in animals when the energy from plants is passed through a food chain. The fixation or reduction of carbon dioxide is a process in which carbon dioxide combines with a five-carbon sugar, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate , to yield two molecules of a three-carbon compound, glycerate 3-phosphate , also known as 3-phosphoglycerate.

This product is also referred to as 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde PGAL or, more generically, as triose phosphate. Most 5 out of 6 molecules of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate produced is used to regenerate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate so the process can continue.

The triose phosphates not thus "recycled" often condense to form hexose phosphates, which ultimately yield sucrose , starch and cellulose. The sugars produced during carbon metabolism yield carbon skeletons that can be used for other metabolic reactions like the production of amino acids and lipids. In hot and dry conditions, plants close their stomata to prevent water loss. Some plants have evolved mechanisms to increase the CO 2 concentration in the leaves under these conditions.

Plants that use the C 4 carbon fixation process chemically fix carbon dioxide in the cells of the mesophyll by adding it to the three-carbon molecule phosphoenolpyruvate PEP , a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme called PEP carboxylase , creating the four-carbon organic acid oxaloacetic acid. Oxaloacetic acid or malate synthesized by this process is then translocated to specialized bundle sheath cells where the enzyme RuBisCO and other Calvin cycle enzymes are located, and where CO 2 released by decarboxylation of the four-carbon acids is then fixed by RuBisCO activity to the three-carbon 3-phosphoglyceric acids.

The physical separation of RuBisCO from the oxygen-generating light reactions reduces photorespiration and increases CO 2 fixation and, thus, the photosynthetic capacity of the leaf. Many important crop plants are C 4 plants, including maize, sorghum, sugarcane, and millet.

Plants that do not use PEP-carboxylase in carbon fixation are called C 3 plants because the primary carboxylation reaction, catalyzed by RuBisCO, produces the three-carbon 3-phosphoglyceric acids directly in the Calvin-Benson cycle. Xerophytes , such as cacti and most succulents , also use PEP carboxylase to capture carbon dioxide in a process called Crassulacean acid metabolism CAM.

CAM plants have a different leaf anatomy from C 3 plants, and fix the CO 2 at night, when their stomata are open. CAM plants store the CO 2 mostly in the form of malic acid via carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is then reduced to malate.

Decarboxylation of malate during the day releases CO 2 inside the leaves, thus allowing carbon fixation to 3-phosphoglycerate by RuBisCO. Sixteen thousand species of plants use CAM. Cyanobacteria possess carboxysomes , which increase the concentration of CO 2 around RuBisCO to increase the rate of photosynthesis. They cannot cross the membrane as they are charged, and within the cytosol they turn back into CO 2 very slowly without the help of carbonic anhydrase.

The overall process of photosynthesis takes place in four stages: This fact allows measurement of the light reaction of photosynthesis by using chlorophyll fluorometers.

Actual plants' photosynthetic efficiency varies with the frequency of the light being converted, light intensity, temperature and proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and can vary from 0. The efficiency of both light and dark reactions can be measured but the relationship between the two can be complex. Chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II can measure the light reaction, and Infrared gas analyzers can measure the dark reaction.

Integrated chlorophyll fluorometer — gas exchange systems allow a more precise measure of photosynthetic response and mechanisms. Photosynthesis measurement systems are not designed to directly measure the amount of light absorbed by the leaf.

But analysis of chlorophyll-fluorescence, P and Pabsorbance and gas exchange measurements reveal detailed information about e. With some instruments even wavelength-dependency of the photosynthetic efficiency can be analyzed.

A phenomenon known as quantum walk increases the efficiency of the energy transport of light significantly. In the photosynthetic cell of an algae, bacterium, or plant, there are light-sensitive molecules called chromophores arranged in an antenna-shaped structure named a photocomplex.

When a photon is absorbed by a chromophore, it is converted into a quasiparticle referred to as an exciton , which jumps from chromophore to chromophore towards the reaction center of the photocomplex, a collection of molecules that traps its energy in a chemical form that makes it accessible for the cell's metabolism.

The exciton's wave properties enable it to cover a wider area and try out several possible paths simultaneously, allowing it to instantaneously "choose" the most efficient route, where it will have the highest probability of arriving at its destination in the minimum possible time. Because that quantum walking takes place at temperatures far higher than quantum phenomena usually occur, it is only possible over very short distances, due to obstacles in the form of destructive interference that come into play.

These obstacles cause the particle to lose its wave properties for an instant before it regains them once again after it is freed from its locked position through a classic "hop". The movement of the electron towards the photo center is therefore covered in a series of conventional hops and quantum walks. Early photosynthetic systems, such as those in green and purple sulfur and green and purple nonsulfur bacteria , are thought to have been anoxygenic , and used various other molecules as electron donors rather than water.

Green and purple sulfur bacteria are thought to have used hydrogen and sulfur as electron donors. Green nonsulfur bacteria used various amino and other organic acids as an electron donor. Purple nonsulfur bacteria used a variety of nonspecific organic molecules. The use of these molecules is consistent with the geological evidence that Earth's early atmosphere was highly reducing at that time.

Fossils of what are thought to be filamentous photosynthetic organisms have been dated at 3. The main source of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere derives from oxygenic photosynthesis , and its first appearance is sometimes referred to as the oxygen catastrophe.

Geological evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis, such as that in cyanobacteria , became important during the Paleoproterozoic era around 2 billion years ago. Modern photosynthesis in plants and most photosynthetic prokaryotes is oxygenic. Oxygenic photosynthesis uses water as an electron donor, which is oxidized to molecular oxygen O 2 in the photosynthetic reaction center.

Several groups of animals have formed symbiotic relationships with photosynthetic algae. These are most common in corals , sponges and sea anemones. It is presumed that this is due to the particularly simple body plans and large surface areas of these animals compared to their volumes.

This allows the mollusks to survive solely by photosynthesis for several months at a time. An even closer form of symbiosis may explain the origin of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have many similarities with photosynthetic bacteria , including a circular chromosome , prokaryotic-type ribosome , and similar proteins in the photosynthetic reaction center. Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells.

Like mitochondria , chloroplasts possess their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA of their plant host cells and the genes in this chloroplast DNA resemble those found in cyanobacteria.

The CoRR Hypothesis proposes that this Co -location of genes with their gene products is required for R edox R egulation of gene expression, and accounts for the persistence of DNA in bioenergetic organelles. The biochemical capacity to use water as the source for electrons in photosynthesis evolved once, in a common ancestor of extant cyanobacteria.

The geological record indicates that this transforming event took place early in Earth's history, at least — million years ago Ma , and, it is speculated, much earlier. A clear paleontological window on cyanobacterial evolution opened about Ma, revealing an already-diverse biota of blue-green algae. Cyanobacteria remained the principal primary producers of oxygen throughout the Proterozoic Eon — Ma , in part because the redox structure of the oceans favored photoautotrophs capable of nitrogen fixation.

Cyanobacteria remain critical to marine ecosystems as primary producers of oxygen in oceanic gyres, as agents of biological nitrogen fixation, and, in modified form, as the plastids of marine algae. Although some of the steps in photosynthesis are still not completely understood, the overall photosynthetic equation has been known since the 19th century. Jan van Helmont began the research of the process in the midth century when he carefully measured the mass of the soil used by a plant and the mass of the plant as it grew.

After noticing that the soil mass changed very little, he hypothesized that the mass of the growing plant must come from the water, the only substance he added to the potted plant.

His hypothesis was partially accurate — much of the gained mass also comes from carbon dioxide as well as water. However, this was a signaling point to the idea that the bulk of a plant's biomass comes from the inputs of photosynthesis, not the soil itself. Joseph Priestley , a chemist and minister, discovered that, when he isolated a volume of air under an inverted jar, and burned a candle in it, the candle would burn out very quickly, much before it ran out of wax.

He further discovered that a mouse could similarly "injure" air. He then showed that the air that had been "injured" by the candle and the mouse could be restored by a plant. Each DD solar aerator can be operated by itself and totally independent of other aeration systems or it can be combined with a windmill aeration system to give you a longer operating time each day. It can also be combined with an electric aerator or windmill and electric aerator combo.

If you have access to some of the parts then you can just buy what you need and save retail pricing and buy wholesale. Here is the breakdown of parts needed to build your do it yourself d. KYOCERA began researching photovoltaics in and has installed thousands of systems throughout the world since These systems are ideal for charging storage batteries to power remote homes, recreational vehicles, boats, telecommunications systems and other consumer and commercial applications.

KYOCERA's advanced cell-processing technology and automated production facilities produce highly efficient multi-crystal photovoltaic modules. To protect the cells from the most severe environmental conditions, they are encapsulated between a tempered glass cover and an EVA pottant with a PVF back sheet. The entire laminate is installed in an anodized aluminum frame for structural strength and ease of installation. These high-flow, high-pressure compressors come with 9" pigtail wiring for quick connection to your your battery or current controller.

They are oilless with ball bearing construction and low amperage draw. The unit prevents stalling of the motor under less than full sun condition. The power of the sun is transformed to the motor running conditions so as the sun goes down the motor slows down instead of stalling. Conversely, or as the sun comes up the motor starts running much earlier instead of staying stalled for hours when it could be running.

This translates into more running time of the motor where it spends a lot of time working instead of stalled doing no work. Sunlight-resistant, comes in black only. PV PoleTops are the only poletop line in the PV industry to offer the durability of all-aluminum components. Can be used as an AC load center or sub-panel. Not supplied with any breakers. Use these insulated terminal bars in place of wire nuts for photovoltaic or other electrical applications. They are made of Nylon with Buna-N seals and are resistant to salt water, weak acids, weak alkalis, alcohol, ether, esters, ketones, and mineral, animal and vegetable oils.

Non-corrosive and suitable for direct burial installations. Suitable for use in NEMA 4, 6 and 12 applications. Faster installation - screw needs only to be loosened for termination. They can also be used for VAC 1-pole circuits. They can handle one or two 14 to 10 wires or one 8 wire. The system can be permanently located at the site or mounted on a trailer for easy relocation if livestock or cattle or involved.

While pond aeration systems are usually maintained on site the winter watering systems are known for being moved from pond to pond. A linear current booster is required to combine the solar direct power from the panels to the DC powered pump and this is usually a simple system that can be picked up at a local supplier of parts designed for alternative power sources.

Your typical aerator includes a bubble diffuser which can be a EPDM type disc diffuser of nine or twelve in diameter membrane diffuser or an airstone or any manner of diffuser tubing also known as diffuser line, de-icing hose or bubbler line.

While many systems can include a length of airline, often feet, there is the self sinking weighted tubing variety of airline that makes installation much easier. Standard airline will float and it is rare that one of my clients will decide to buy regular poly plastic tubing instead of the weighted tubing because it makes installation so much simpler. For those of you who want to go beyond the solar direct system there exists many retailers who specialize in solar pond systems that include deep cell battery operated systems that can provide continuous aeration over 8 to 12 hours per day due to their deep cycle battery systems.

Fundamentally these solar pumps are the same but instead of operating only when sunlight hits the solar panels they have the ability to charge deep cell batteries during the sunny hours of the day and can operate the pump during times when there is no light which is often preferable as aeration systems an their best will function only during the evening hours when their is no chance for aquatic plants to contribute oxygen due to photosynthesis. Parts would Include the following: You must accept that creating and building and setting up a solar aeration system is a very very VERY complicated affair and while we are offering the parts and instructions on how to build your system we cannot provide ANY help or installation guides.

If you wish to have a simple, turn-key system then please contact someone else as we are unable to privide any help beyond this list of products and parts. Any failure of the system to function as expressed, implied or as desired is not gauranteed.

Solar aeration systems are a very touchy and persnickety project so if you wish to buy or purchase from us then please do so at your own risk. We have provided a list of parts and instructions but do not imply or warranty that this will actually work! Carbaryl's extensive and varied uses account for the frequent occurrence of residues on food. In addition, though carbaryl is generally thought to have "short term residual properties,"3 under certain conditions it can be persistent. For example, carbaryl sprayed on bean leaves at least ten hours before rainfall was washed away slowly and "never attained percent dissipation.

Because of its chemical characteristics, the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA identified carbaryl as one of the pesticides with most potential to leach into groundwater. As with carbaryl residues on food crops, water can contain residues that persist much longer than would be expected. Following carbaryl spraying in a Maine forest during a simulated spruce budworm control project, residues were measured in pond water for 14 months.

Studies of pesticide residues in California fog have found higher than expected levels of carbaryl. Highest concentrations were found in nonagricultural areas, indicating that homeowner use of this pesticide may be an important source of fog residues. A recent EPA survey estimated that over 12 million almost 16 percent of U. Over 28 million applications are made annually in homes and over 31 million applications are made in yards and gardens.

Only six pesticide ingredients are used more often than is carbaryl in U. Residents of homes where carbaryl is or has been used often ask about the time that carbaryl will persist in their yard, lawn, or garden. It is difficult to answer because persistence depends on weather, climate, soil type, and a host of other factors. Carbaryl's persistence in soil has been measured between two and sixteen weeks. Humans are exposed to carbaryl when the insecticide drifts from an agricultural, forestry, or other application.

Drift is an inevitable part of some application procedures. For example, a study of orchard carbaryl applications in Vermont found that aerially-applied carbaryl drifted to the most distant sampling point about yards under all wind and atmospheric stability conditions tested. Drift is more extensive under conditions that favor movement of carbaryl droplets. Under "moderate" miles per hour wind conditions, aerially applied carbaryl drifted up to 2 miles.

The manufacture of carbaryl and its use in agricultural or other occupational settings exposes workers to the insecticide. A study of the first U. In California where reporting of pesticide-related illnesses has been required for longer than most other states , carbaryl was one of the top eight insecticides causing illness among agricultural workers.

Most of the illnesses were associated with chronic more than three days exposure to carbaryl. For example, among pet handlers workers at kennels, veterinary clinics, grooming shops, etc. These are all typical symptoms of poisoning with an AChE inhibitor. Concern about human exposure to carbaryl is heightened by its tendency to be absorbed through skin, the failure of protective clothing to adequately prevent exposure, and potential exposure of particularly susceptible individuals.

About three-quarters of the carbaryl applied to skin in experimental studies is absorbed. The skin of young rats absorbs more carbaryl than that of older rats,28 raising the possibility that children might be particularly susceptible.

When used to protect from carbaryl exposure, it can fail because the clothing itself retains contamination from an earlier use, and because the protective barrier is permeable under certain conditions. While carbaryl is not as difficult to remove from clothing by laundering as are some pesticides, as much as 12 percent of carbaryl residues remained in clothing after a hot five minute machine laundering.

The drugs cause a life-threatening disintegration of red blood cells in these individuals. Carbaryl is toxic to a wide variety of living things not considered pests, including beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, earthworms, plants, and bacteria. In almost all cases, carbaryl is both acutely toxic and causes a variety of sublethal effects. Carbaryl is acutely toxic to bees, i ncluding the honey bee, leaf cutter bees, and alkali bees the latter two species are important pollinators of seed alfalfa.

For example, a survey of bee poisonings in Connecticut found that carbaryl was the second most commonly detected pesticide, and that about 60 percent of contaminated hives had been poisoned with carbaryl. When carbaryl is used to kill insects and mites that cause agricultural pest problems, the predators and parasites of the pests are also killed by carbaryl.

Examples can be found in a wide variety of agricultural systems, including the parasitoids of the sweet potato whitefly;35 spiders that prey on the European corn borer;36 predators of mite pests on seedless grapes,37 almonds,38 and cotton;39 parasitoids of armyworms;40 a parasitoid of the cotton bollworm;41 and aphid predators on collards. Effects can be dramatic. Carbaryl applied during a Japanese beetle eradication program in San Diego County, California, destroyed the parasitoids that had been introduced to control the wooly whitefly and the citrus red mite.

The result was an explosion in whitefly and mite populations, causing defoliation of yard, garden, and street trees on a "massive scale. The same type of effects occur in nonagricultural ecosystems. For example, carbaryl treatment reduced the abundance of litter-decomposing insects in sagebrush, disrupting nutrient cycling;44 killed aphid predators in tallgrass prairie;45 decreased the number of pollinators, and the number of fruits set by flowering shrubs, in a forest sprayed with carbaryl to kill spruce budworm;46 decreased stonefly populations in streams sprayed with carbaryl for spruce budworm control populations remained low for at least four years ;47 and increased the survival of a disease-carrying beetle in a pine forest by killing its predators.

Carbaryl is acutely toxic to fish. While toxicity varies depending on the species of fish tested, for four representative species concentrations of between 2 and 16 parts per million ppm in water cause death. For example, concentrations of less than 1 ppm cause a decrease in amino acid levels in muscles,50 damage to gill and liver cells, kidney lesions,51 and slowing of fin regeneration.

Reproduction of fishes is particularly susceptible to carbaryl poisoning. Concentrations of 10 parts per billion 0. Higher concentrations ppm reduced the number and size of eggs, increased the number of deformities and damaged the yolk.

Carbaryl's primary breakdown product, 1-naphthol, is more toxic to a number of species of fish than is carbaryl itself. This has been demonstrated in the shiner perch, English sole, stickleback, goldfish, killifish, and several other freshwater fishes including some of economic importance. Carbaryl bioconcentrates in fish tissues to levels between 9 and 34 times higher than those in the water in which the fish swim. Carbaryl is acutely toxic to birds , although the dose required to kill most species is greater than that required to kill mammals, fish or insects.

Aerial spraying of carbaryl to simulate a spruce budworm spray program , for example, reduced the abundance of large invertebrates in ponds. As a result, ducklings mallard and black living in the ponds had reduced growth rates, spent more time searching for food, and spent less time resting than ducklings on unsprayed ponds.

Fewer warblers fed in the treated areas and they fed on lower branches. The diversity and richness of species also declined. Other studies have not been able to demonstrate affects on bird populations after carbaryl treatment of forests; the size of the treated area appears to be an important factor.

In the laboratory, exposure of pigeons to carbaryl caused changes in the abundance of various kinds of blood cells. Bleeding and clotting time was "conspicuously prolonged. Unhatched and young birds appear to be particularly sensitive to carbaryl exposure. Injection of the insecticide into developing chicken eggs caused increased mortality,70,71 slowing of development, skeletal abnormalities,70 jaw deformities,72 and abnormal locomotion.

The abnormal walking lasted for 47 days after treatment. Injection into mallard eggs caused stunted growth. Earthworms are sensitive to small amounts of carbaryl in soil.

Sublethal concentrations of carbaryl caused more tadpoles to die during their metamorphosis into frogs while the frogs that survived were smaller.

Effects were found at concentrations as low as 2 ppm, less than one-third of the acute lethal dose. Cladoceran crustaceans often called water fleas are more sensitive to carbaryl than other common small pond invertebrates.

Larger crustaceans are also affected by carbaryl. In addition to acute toxicity, carbaryl exposure caused changes in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism in prawns edible shrimp. Ecological impacts may be even more serious. A study of woodland ponds in northern Maine treated with carbaryl to simulate a spruce budworm control program showed that amphipod crustaceans, among the most abundant of the larger invertebrates in the ponds, were the most severely affected.

Extinction of the crustaceans occurred in most of the ponds, and recolonization did not occur in some ponds by the end of the study, thirty months later. Carbaryl is acutely toxic to adult crabs at concentrations between and ppb. Carbaryl is acutely toxic to snails and clams. Concentrations as low as 1 part per million ppm caused permanent constriction and elongation of a clams' siphons93 and concentrations as low as 2 ppm caused changes in the digestive cells of a marine snail.

While insecticides are not usually assumed to have adverse effects on plants, carbaryl's use as a plant growth regulator chemical thinning agent in apples95,96 makes effects on other plants unsurprising.

The following four types of effects of carbaryl have been documented in crop plants:. Examples include a decrease in germination success in wheat97 and decreased germination and an increase in abnormal chromosomes in vetch.

Examples include the inhibition of seedling growth in beans,99 disrupted cell division in onion, distorted growth in poinsettia,35 decreased growth in peas and vetch,19 and a decrease in the weight of bolls in cotton. Examples include reductions in the photosynthetic rate of pecan trees and young soybeans. Examples include reduced colonization and spore-formation of peanut mycorrhizae, interference with the nitrogen-fixing mechanisms of the soil bacteria Azobacter, decreased photosynthesis, growth, nitrogen-fixation, and survival of a nitrogen-fixing bacteria common in rice paddies,, reduced growth of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium,,19 and toxicity to another nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Carbaryl's primary breakdown product, 1-naphthol, is as toxic as carbaryl to several nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Carbaryl and 1-naphthol is acutely toxic to salt marsh protozoans at concentrations that might be expected in runoff from treated areas.

When protozoan populations are killed, changes occur in the bacteria populations on which the protozoans feed, resulting in a "pronounced inhibition" of the ability to decompose plant material. Humic acid one of the kinds of dissolved organic materials found in streams appears to synergize the acute toxicity of carbaryl to at least one aquatic bacteria. This indicates that aquatic organisms may be more susceptible to carbaryl poisoning when there is organic matter present.

The importance of carbaryl's effects on nontarget organisms is probably most clearly shown by studies of how the insecticide affects an entire ecosystem. A study of a carbaryl treatment of a millet agroecosystem showed that the numbers and weight of insects were reduced more than 95 percent; the reduction persisted for over 5 weeks.

One result of this reduction was that litter decomposition declined because decomposer insects were killed. Spider populations were reduced for three months.

While no acute effects were observed in trapped small mammals, reproduction of cotton rats was delayed by the carbaryl treatment for almost a month, allowing a competing species, the house mouse, to become dominant.

Subsequent laboratory tests showed that carbaryl treatment of cotton rats causes a decrease in the number of litters and the number of live young. The study's author contrasts the short-term persistence of carbaryl with the long-term effects on insects and mammals that he found. Humans are exposed to carbaryl through consuming contaminated food and water, using carbaryl in homes, gardens, and offices, through drift, and through occupational exposure. Carbaryl is the tenth most commonly detected pesticide in U.

It has been found in groundwater, surface water, and fog. Almost 60 million applications of carbaryl-containing insecticides are made annually in homes and gardens. Workers in carbaryl manufacturing facilities, agricultural workers, and pet handlers are all occupationally exposed to carbaryl and have suffered adverse effects, including sperm abnormalities, AChE inhibition, diarrhea, and coughing.

Carbaryl is well-absorbed by skin, particularly skin of young animals. Protective clothing can be difficult to effectively launder and transmits more carbaryl under hot, sweaty conditions. A wide variety of nontarget animals, plants, and microorganisms are affected by carbaryl exposure.

The number of sublethal effects that occur at low exposures is particularly striking. Beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, a variety of crop plants, and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are all affected by carbaryl. Only one ecosystem study has been done with carbaryl, but it indicated that the effects on individual species result in persistent effects on ecosystems. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides P. Box Eugene, OR Phone: Carbaryl, Part 1, by Caroline Cox. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Toxicological profile for dibromochloropropanes: Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Pesticides industry sales and usage: Office of Pesticide Programs. Guidance for the reregistration of pesticide products containing carbaryl as the active ingredient. A tree physiologist's view of growth regulators. Effects of paclobutrazol and carbaryl on the yield of Hi-Early red 'Delicious' apples.

Preparation and mode of action. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. Recognition and management of pesticide poisonings. A comparative study of drug metabolizing enzymes in adrenal glands and livers of rats and chickens. The interaction of carbaryl with the metabolism of isolated hepatocytes: Toxic effects of pesticides. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. Cited in Bavari, S. Modulation of interleukin-2 driven proliferation of human large granular lymphocytes by carbaryl.

Effects of oral doses of carbaryl on man. Comparison of chlordimeform and carbaryl using a functional observational battery. Mammalian toxicity of 1-napthyl-N-methylcarbamate Sevin insecticide.

Cited in Cranmer, M. A toxicological review and risk analysis. The effects of acute carbaryl exposure on clotting factor activity in the rat.

Electrocardiogram of rabbits experimentally intoxicated with carbaryl. The pathogenesis of organophosphate polyneuropathy. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 21 6: Delayed neurotoxicity after ingestion of carbamate pesticide. Subacute neurotoxicity following long-term exposure to carbaryl.

Effects of carbaryl on variable interval response rates in rats. Behavioral and physiological effects of the anticholinesterase inhibitor carbaryl 1-naphthyl methylcarbamate. Neurotoxicological studies of two carbamate pesticides in subacute animal experiments.

Effects of oral and muscular carbaryl administrations on repeated chain acquisition in monkeys. Is carbaryl as safe as it's reputation? Pesticides and the immune system. Immunologic considerations in toxicology. Effect of the pesticide carbaryl Sevin on the course of experimental Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in rats. Characterization of goldfish virus-2, a new iridovirus and the effects of the pesticides carbaryl and toxaphene on its in vitro replication.

Suppression of interferon synthesis by the pesticide carbaryl as a mechanism for enhancement of goldfish virus-2 replication. Modulation of interleukin-2 driven proliferation of human large granular lymphocytes by carbaryl, an anticholinesterase insecticide. Teratogenic action of carbaryl in beagle dogs. Testicular function among carbaryl-exposed employees. Sperm shape abnormalities in carbaryl-exposed employees.

Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Effect of carbaryl on the neuroendocrine system of rats.

1. Joint Health