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If the organisms are not killed by the temperature drop, they won't survive the pump machinery or the chemicals used to clean the inside of the pipes. The average American car driven the average American distance releases its own weight in CO2 annually. The officials don't enforce the laws. Oyster die-offs in Washington state and Oregon dating back a decade have also been linked by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration researchers to acidification and rising carbon dioxide levels. This was underscored by researchers who have tracked fish using electronic tags. An Alaska Department of Fish and Game biologist pointed to changing ocean currents, plankton blooms and even the carnivorous nature of salmon. Keep your body in a straight line from head to heels.

The Best Rowing Machines By Price Range And Budget

How stress affects your health

The calm privacy, elegance, and comfort you are going to enjoy in the rentals of Thailand will help make your vacation to Thailand genuinely unforgettable. There are options that are many with regards to villa rentals. With a professional travel agent or maybe online booking agent is going to take the work from planning villas holidays.

There are lots of gorgeous sea villas along the coastline of Thailand. Placed in probably the southernmost province of Thailand, the beaches here will help make your Thailand holidays seem like a dream come true. Choose from secluded shores to being served dinner right on the seaside. Some offer entertainment, while Patong could be the party capital of the beaches in this specific place. The nights are full of numerous indulgences along the seaside.

The luxury villas provided in this specific region range from a single bedroom private room overlooking the beach to 6 bedrooms which contain each amenity you are able to imagine, incorporating a staff. The majority of villas for rent in Phuket offer unobstructed views of the Andaman Sea.

Also overlooking the Andaman Sea, Patong beach has the amazing blend of white sand beach along with a huge focus of tourist. Many rentals in Thailand offer 3 bedrooms, but in Patong, you are going to find deluxe villa rentals with as much as 9 bedrooms.

Villas for rent along the seashore of Kamala are completely different than almost all rentals in Thailand. You will find deluxe villa rentals available here. Planning a Thailand vacation is much more than finding the beaches. Kamala is a personal, much less inhabited area. Behind the row of luxury villas with pools along this particular beach, you are going to see grassy pastureland.

There are lots of beach rentals to select from along the coastline of Thailand. When you opt to go to Thailand, your budget villa holidays may be a little more magnificent than staying in a five-star resort. In general, the price of leasing a villa is much less than renting a hotel room.

Nevertheless, as you look for these businesses you are going to realize one fact that is critical: There are numerous businesses that are unreliable and could provide you with poor services.

You, therefore, need to take some time to find out about the qualities of trustworthy cleaning firms. The following tips should set you on the proper track. Just about the most important qualities to seek out is insurance. A dependable business should have insurance. An additional attribute of dependable Cleaning Companies is registration by the regional authorities.

You will find numerous demands that the washing company must meet to be able to be registered as a company within the state. Reliable Cleaning Companies make certain that their workers are taught on the latest cleaning strategies also the utilization of different cleansing agents.

This teaching must be carried out frequently and not just for good as cleaning methods change constantly and items that are innovative are now being brought to the marketplace every so often. You need to, therefore, consult the company for the instruction of its workers. Ask them for a training or training certificates schedule. You may actually casually interview a worker while waiting to talk with a company representative. Many reliable cleaning organizations have exceptional working relationships with previous and current clients.

Clients that are thrilled with the services rendered will probably be just too happy to make the organization a glowing recommendation. A well-performing cleaning service will thus be capable to supply you with authentic references because of its services. Companies that are reluctant to supply you with references typically have a thing to hide. Such a company needs to have stayed away from. Many folks believe that high-quality products mean being charged a higher charge.

Reliable Cleaning Companies do not usually ask you for a high cost for their services. Smaller businesses generally lessen to invest in overhead costs and also may have the ability to supply you with less expensive services. That suggests this particular situation affects more than ten million individuals at any single time.

Nevertheless, females are able to experience hemorrhoids as a result of many typical things like diet, insufficient fluid intake, family history of hemorrhoids, vascular issues or even the increased strain on the anal area during pregnancy that will lead to the improvement of hemorrhoid. The severity and kind of hemorrhoid will identify the symptoms one may experience.

Hemorrhoid suffers could experience some number of the following symptoms:. A burning sensation in and around the anus Itching that is generally is generally linked with mucus discharge from the hemorrhoid Bright white blood, that could be apparent over the stool, toilet paper, and inside the toilet bowl after a bowel movement.

Discomfort during a bowel movement Hemorrhoids manifest often inside the anal canal or even externally around the anus. Pain is much more commonly connected with external hemorrhoids due to the focus of nerve endings around the outside of the anus.

This focus of never endings is the reason why external hemorrhoids can be quite uneasy and painful. External hemorrhoid which develops a blood clot is referred to a thrombosed hemorrhoid. Internal hemorrhoid becomes extremely unpleasant in case hemorrhoid starts to protruding beyond the anus.

This specific kind of hemorrhoid is able to generate bowel movements especially painful. Stay very well moisturized, one ought to be consuming six to eight cups of water each day.

Incorporate foods into your diet very high in fiber like fresh fruit and whole grains and veggies. Incorporation of exercise into your routine, exercise is able to assist to enhance and enhance the circulatory and vascular systems.

At Home Treatment for Swelling and Discomfort: Soaking the infected region, possibly by sitting in a tub of basic warm water or even in a sitz bath for ten to fifteen minutes. Topical application of ice to region that is affected to help reduce swelling and relieve pain. Application of nonprescription topical creams and ointments specially developed to greatly reduce swelling and numb pain. To relieve itching connected with hemorrhoids, witch hazel, an extract originating from a witch hazel plant, is put on to the affected region with a cotton ball or even swab.

For more serious cases of hemorrhoids, the above at home remedies might not be good at solving the problem. Allow me to share several of the methods a health care provider might use to rectify severe hemorrhoid. Rubber band ligation is a very common procedure to treat serious hemorrhoids.

By putting a band at the foundation of hemorrhoid to chop off of blood flow, leading to hemorrhoid to wither away. Sclerotherapy is a process which involves an injection into the hemorrhoid of a specially created solution, that is going to aid in the shrinking of hemorrhoid. For the severest of instances, a hemorrhoidectomy might be done, and that is the surgical removal of the hemorrhoidal tissue.

Although surgery is needed for serious cases of hemorrhoids those struggling with the problem will be smart to utilize a holistic and natural hemorrhoid therapies to keep the degeneration of hemorrhoid to that particular degree of seriousness.

The very best natural cures for hemorrhoids wish to resolve the underlying problem rather than just deal with the symptoms. Dealing with the root of the issue before or perhaps at the beginning of a hemorrhoidal flare-up may perhaps help save you from having to cope with a thrombosed or even protruding hemorrhoid.

You might have to work with probably a pest control business whether you have a pest problem in your property or home. The pests can be big like mice or rats, or maybe they can be little like ants, or maybe bed bugs etc. Hiring a seasoned pest controller like the guys at www. These professionals know many methods to be able to cure all kinds of pest infestations. One other good thing about these providers is the fact that they may come to assist you in emergencies too.

All that you have to accomplish is making a phone call to them, and also they are going to be at your home on time. They are going to inspect your house completely to be able to spot the culprit.

After that, they are going to suggest to you the greatest technique to rid you of all those unpleasant creatures forevermore. The point would be that the benefits of employing a pro pest controller are many. Expert exterminators perform a comprehensive assessment of your home so as to determine probably the pest problem.

According to the identification, they are going to use the correct products and strategies to get rid of all of the pests. They normally use a multitude of strategies and things, which can be safe for your well being and also the planet, to exterminate pests. To eliminate all of the invaders, the pest control business is going to carry out an extensive assessment of your respective residence.

For probably the most part, they examine every single part of your home to help make sure no area is remaining uninspected. Occasionally, a residence is infested with many kinds of pests.

These services include pre-treatment, cleaning up the infested places, pest removal or maybe extermination, and repeat trips depending on your requirement. Another prominent benefit of employing a pest controller is they utilize high-end therapy techniques and available products in the market. The bulk of anti-pest items offered in the industry are not powerful enough to kill off all of the pests in a home.

Experts have a great deal of experience dealing with all kinds of insect infestation. Thus, they are able to get the task done in an excellent fashion.

I used to be in the shoes so I know precisely the way it feels. I remembered my bloodstream brother waking up in the evening to offer me a huge blow since I will not permit him to rest in the night. There are lots of snorers out there today that have suffered serious losses due to snoring and remedied it by doing what others did, going to www.

Marriages are broken and human relationships are on the verge of breaking down because somebody snores. Exactly how much evil do you believe snoring will do for you before you can get mad and search for how you can quit snoring? Even when this method does not help you, there are numerous effective snoring remedies available that have proven extremely effective in stopping snoring.

Weighty individuals have this most. The muscles of your respective throat and tongue are likely that thickened that they rest to obstruct the airways, making you snore.

You are able to run it around your nose prior to going to sleep. It is going to cause a flow from the mucus clogging up your nose, providing you with a complimentary airway for breathing. Now allow me to talk about just how I managed to eliminate my snoring. This helped to produce a passageway for inhaling by preventing my throat muscles from over relaxing on the air passage.

This helped me a good deal. You are able to stop this particular by sleeping earlier. You also can use these points to prevent your snoring. A secured trust deed is an insolvency process which could assist residents of Scotland to locate help from debts which are becoming overwhelming. Like many providers, the customer service performance available varies substantially from a single provider to the next. Scanning through the comments plus internet reviews made by people who visit trust deed forums will enlighten anybody to the point that a cautious option is needed.

Advertising in the paper, on the television as well as on the air alert lots of individuals on the potential for a secured trust deed to cope with their debts. Lots of people, however, expect a lot of quality personal interaction both before and also during probably the most significant economic choices of their lives. They are present at the front end of the debt advice process and also cause individuals to real trust deed providers.

Good introducers offer an additional level of safety to customers as they are able to offer suggestions about some other remedies, like bankruptcy, debt management programs or maybe the debt arrangement scheme. However, there are lots of introducers which employ unqualified advisers, a situation that must be of a big problem to anybody dealing with a serious economic decision.

Would you act on the recommendations of an unqualified financial adviser or maybe mortgage broker? They might additionally be financially incentivized to refer you to the provider providing them the largest payment rather compared to one providing you the top degree of customer care. Additionally, there are medium-sized protected trust deed specialists. They are also very likely to use a Trustee that you are able to speak to in case you require reassurance or maybe an answer.

Traditional accountancy firms offer assistance with tax, other services and auditing along with trust deed insolvency services. Continuity of exposure to well trained individuals doing work outside a call centre environment will typically have the interests of the customer.

Sole Insolvency Practitioners or those dealing with very minimal support also from time to time offer trust deed services and assistance. In certain conditions sole practitioners in this particular setting might not be completely up to date with existing creditor acceptance criteria along with other things of great value.

It might be worth looking at an alternative more specialised resource of information. Our trust deed forum offers a unique insight into the variable program encountered by people who have started off a Scottish trust deed. The thousands of articles by guests with a personal experience of trust deeds are backed up with qualified comment from a panel of protected trust deed providers.

A lot of us are feeling a bit self-aware of people and wish that we might shed a number of pounds. You will find 2 features that are major to looking thinner and wearing apparel that truly flatter. The first is choosing apparel which lengthens and thin the body as a full, the next is wearing apparel that hides, disguise and balance body parts which are disproportionately bigger compared to the others.

Lots of people consistently stick to dark clothes to make themselves appear slimmer but essentially there are loads of other alternatives which could make you appear slimmer. In fact, any color of clothes is able to look good in case you select the perfect design for your body design. Among the strategies for looking slimmer is choosing clothes such as joseph ribkoff pants that fit perfectly.

Whilst you might think that baggy clothes help you to conceal bulges, they basically allow you to appear bulkier and bigger. Garments which are very tight are also unflattering since they are inclined to show and result in unsightly bulges and a provide a lumpy silhouette.

You are able to get interested away from around tummy by using empire line tops and skirts. You must also focus on lengths of dresses and jackets. Something that finishes with a relatively broader component of the entire body is going to draw attention to that particular place.

There are plenty of methods that you are able to make your body appear longer and slimmer. As a broad rule, anything that produces a diagonal or vertical line across the body would have a slimming effect. Search for garments with diagonal or vertical stripes or maybe dresses with embellishment or maybe detail which run diagonally across the skirt.

Do not hesitate to make use of pattern and color. In the appropriate spot color plus the design is able to bring about the general slimming effect of an outfit. Try wearing long colored necklaces or maybe scarves and highlighting your favorite places using color. A brightly colored extra-large clutch also can have a slimming effect.

Do not hesitate to try out looks that are new, simply consider stick to the styles that actually flatter you. When your personal computer is making a mess for yourself and you are able to not locate appropriate fixes, you set out in search of professionals to yank you out there.

And also the 1st option is usually the manufacturer. Then, you see your guarantee with the producer has expired along with your personal computer is no additional qualified for free computer assistance or maybe repair from them.

In such case, the smartest thing you are able to do is to search for internet computer assistance and support. Outlined below are a number of suggestions you are able to follow to limit on the best computer support vendor who could provide you the very best value for your cash. Always store around before settling on a specific source: Shop for various support companies and go forward together with the one that has a much better array of support services along with adequate charges.

Get credentials from knowledgeable folks: Occasionally, users get baffled among which offerings to select from. Look away for trail assistance packs: See if any trail package can be purchased with good computer support company.

Also, do not compromise on the caliber of support services. Ensure about conditions and terms with the computer system service provider. Always give out small details of your computer issues and not shy to ask your laptop or computer support technician whatever you feel doubtful about. A complex and security specialist related to many tech companies. The updated report added in global threats from climate and rising ocean acidity caused by carbon dioxide pollution to the list of threats to coral reefs.

In , one of the warmest years on record, spiking water temperatures damaged coral on a global scale rarely witnessed before. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide, is absolutely necessary to prevent a lot of the dire situations presented in the report. The Atlantic blue fin tuna are delicious and may be on the brink of extinction due to overfishing.

The European Union agreed to propose protecting them as an endangered species. Blue fin tuna have been eaten for centuries, but in the s, demand and prices soared, particularly in Japan. As a result, stocks, especially of large, breeding age fish, have plummeted, and international conservation concerns have increased. This tuna is one of the most highly prized fish used in Japanese raw fish dishes. Prices were highest in the late s and s. The practice of tuna farming has brought down prices.

The ambassadors attached a number of conditions, including a one year delay to the ban on fishing, and an opt out for fishermen using small boats to supply local markets.

Malta voted against the proposed ban while Sweden and Austria abstained. Environmental groups said the EU had not done enough to reduce over sized blue fin tuna fishing fleets. Over eight years the EU blue fin tuna fishing industry received subsidies totaling Several Arab countries joined Japan in arguing it would hurt poor fishing nations and was not supported by sound science.

Supporters of the ban, including the European Union and the United States, say it is necessary this is a migratory species that swims from the western Atlantic to the Mediterranean. There is also a growing threat from illegal fishing fleets and the failure of existing measures to keep the population sustainable. Undersea photojournalist Brian Skerry sees the oceans in crisis: North Atlantic right whales, once so plentiful that "a man could almost walk across Cape Cod Bay upon their backs," now number on the planet.

Much of this has taken place since mechanized fishing. Daniel Pauly, leader of the Sea Around Us Project at the University of British Columbia, reports that, humans have "reduced the populations of large commercial fish. The documentary End of the Line says: Skerry has photographed underwater around the world.

In Mexico he found that the reefs were anemic. They were highly overfished. They consisted of a lot of dead coral, from warming and bleaching. They'd also sustained heavy hurricane damage. In New England he noticed that the huge schools of herring and pollock that he saw in the '70s and early '80s weren't there anymore. Skerry has witnessed excessive and destructive fishing like catching shrimp. In the process, everything else - all the little stuff that lives on the bottom, the sponges and the coral and all the habitat for baby animals - you wipe all that out.

To catch one pound of shrimp, we might kill 12 pounds of other animals that get thrown back into the sea as by-catch. The giant bluefin tuna continue to grow their entire life. So their stocks have plummeted over 90 percent in just the last 30 years.

The industry has been struggling - severely curtailing fishing quotas and limiting time at sea in order to help replenish those decimated species. Some have been rebuilt: There have been quite a few success stories. Many were renamed so that they could be marketed: Yet even as America struggles to manage its depleted stocks - and those independent fishermen are subjected to ever more draconian regulations - corporate overfishing continues at alarming rates in places such as the European Union and Asia, with governments showing little inclination to rein it in.

Another problem, says Skerry - is ocean acidification. That's when an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, soaked up by the ocean, leads to a decrease in the water's pH level, stripping the sea of carbonate ions, which are crucial for calcification.

The result, says Skerry, is that it "wipes out things like coral reefs - anything with a calcium structure, including shellfish and these little mollusks that are consumed by a lot of other animals. Meanwhile, Annala is noticing other changes. That's becoming fresher and cooler as the Greenland ice cap melts. Rothschild says that that "puddle of fresh water" floating atop the briny Atlantic "prevents the typical overturn of nutrients going up and down and recycling to make phytoplankton and zooplankton.

If this is a recurring phenomena, it's going to change the productivity of the northwest Atlantic in ways that we don't know yet.

Skerry says the Obama administration's gestures and rhetoric so far have been encouraging. But the unfortunate reality is there's so much on their plate right now. People's retirement money is vanished and they're losing their jobs and we're gonna send another 40, troops to Afghanistan and there's terrorism.

The Humpback whale could be removed from the protections of the Endangered Species Act, or downlisted to "threatened" status, if the National Marine Fisheries Service finds that their numbers have increased sufficiently.

Humpbacks were listed as endangered in , but recent surveys have found that humpback whale populations are generally on an upward trend, up to an estimated 20, in the North Pacific now. Miyoko Sakashita, oceans program director at the Center for Biological Diversity said: Direct threats to the species include entanglement in fishing gear, collisions with ships, offshore oil development, and military sonar.

Nearly every marine animal studied has had an adverse response to acidification. The National Marine Fisheries Service is soliciting information and accepting comments on the humpback-whale status review until October 11, More people require more vehicles which emit more carbon dioxide and create other impacts on the planet unless something is done quickly.

After World War II, population growth and rising incomes drove up the demand for seafood. The oceanic fish catch climbed from 19 million tons in to 93 million tons in The human appetite for seafood is outgrowing the sustainable yield of oceanic fisheries. Oceanic harvests expanded as new technologies evolved, ranging from sonar to driftnets.

The year-old cod fishery of Canada failed in the early s, putting some 40, fishers and fish processors out of work. Fisheries off the coast of New England soon followed. And in Europe, cod fisheries are in decline, approaching a free fall. Negotiating catch limits at sustainable levels can be difficult. But these and subsequent cuts have not been sufficient to arrest the decline of the region's fisheries.

With restrictions on the catch in EU waters, the fishing fleet has turned to the west coast of Africa. Unfortunately for the Africans, their fisheries too are collapsing. Well over half of the mangrove forests in tropical and subtropical countries have been lost and the loss of coastal wetlands in industrial countries is even greater. Damage to coral reefs from higher ocean temperatures and acidification caused by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, pollution and sedimentation, are threatening these breeding grounds for fish.

Pollution is taking a devastating toll, illustrated by the dead zones created by nutrient runoff from fertilizer and sewage. The Mississippi River carries nutrients from the Corn Belt and sewage from cities along its route into the Gulf of Mexico.

The nutrient surge creates huge algal blooms that then die and decompose, consuming the free oxygen in the water, leading to the death of fish. This creates a dead zone each summer in the Gulf that can reach the size of New Jersey.

For decades governments have tried to save specific fisheries by restricting the catch of individual species. Sometimes this worked, sometimes it failed and fisheries collapsed. Support for the creation of marine reserves has been gaining momentum. These reserves, where fishing is restricted, serve as natural hatcheries.

Coastal nations pledged to create national networks of marine parks. Other measures are to reduce the nutrient flows from fertilizer runoff and untreated sewage that create the world's or so dead zones. There are now so many fishing trawlers that their catch potential is nearly double any yield the oceans can sustain. Immediately after WW2 I was developing sonar systems and spent many weeks up in the Arctic on deep sea trawlers. I vividly remember the enormous size of the catches after the fishing had halted for the war years.

FAO estimates that one-quarter of the world's fisheries are over-exploited and facing depletion; an additional half are being fished at their maximum capacity. Regulation hasn't stopped destruction of the world's fisheries.

So in the s, environmentalists began to enlist consumer choice in the fight for more sustainable fishing. Some eco-minded entrepreneurs have created businesses aimed at promoting sustainable seafood. Some of the leaders in the sustainable seafood industry are based the Bay Area. Environmental groups in general consider a fishery is sustainable if the population of that kind of fish is allowed to maintain a healthy level, and fishing methods don't damage the ocean environment or other marine species.

The fishery prevents overfishing and allows collection of data on the fish population. The nonprofit Marine Stewardship Council provides a seal of approval to seafood that meets its sustainability standards. The Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch publishes wallet-size cards that give a green, yellow or red light to different kinds of seafood. Fishing wiped out Atlantic Bluefin tuna in Northern Europe 50 years ago. Ongoing pressure is pushing the species to extinction.

Every summer in the early s, Northern European waters teemed with Atlantic Bluefin tuna. Few could catch the fish until the s and s when bigger, faster boats were designed. The Bluefin population crashed in the s and more than 40 years later it still hasn't recovered despite a no-fishing ban for the past 15 years.

Moreover illegal fishing is rampant and an independent study revealed the annual tuna catch approached 50, tonnes. The largest population breeds are in the Mediterranean Sea, another is found in the western Atlantic the third is found in the South Atlantic and is considered to be an endangered species. Tagging data provides new evidence that mixing is occurring in the northern waters of the eastern Atlantic and western and eastern stocks of north Atlantic Bluefin mingle in the central Atlantic.

That means tuna hunters in the North Atlantic are likely harvesting the increasingly rare western Atlantic Bluefin and counting them as eastern Atlantic Bluefin. Because breeding is a high-stress time for tuna, closure of breeding grounds to tuna fishing might not be enough. Researchers found that a majority of Bluefins gravitated to the Florida straits and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico for breeding. All fishing should be banned near their breeding grounds during the breeding season.

The oversized and well-financed tuna fleet can easily take 50, tonnes in the Mediterranean and East Atlantic, despite a quota allowing only 29, tonnes. The only way to guarantee a reduction in fishing effort and facilitate stock recovery is to impose a ban during the month of June.

Unsustainable fishing practices deplete targeted species, sea birds, turtles, and other marine life, while destroying deep-sea reefs.

It was assumed that ocean species had boundless capacity to recover from overfishing. Industrial fishing put the livelihood of tens of millions of subsistence fishermen at risk while threatening the primary source of protein for some million people worldwide. Today some of the world's largest environmental groups are focused on marine life and oceans, with sustainable fisheries management. Conservation groups are working with governments to establish marine reserves, ban destructive fishing practices, protect key species, and educate consumers.

While the world is willing to protect elephants by banning the ivory trade, we're not there yet with commercial fish species. The trouble with bluefin is they are valuable in the Japanese sashimi market. That means we are facing the very prospect of hunting this animal to biological extinction. It is the most valuable fish in the sea: Today fishermen cannot even catch the quota the government gives them, which is symptomatic of a collapsing fishery, like the North Atlantic cod.

The trouble is that the ocean has always been an open access resource. You get big catches for a few years but then the populations' crash and the fishing communities crash along with them. Commercial fishing is much more difficult to address because there is a huge industry lobby. Subsidies are why we have too many boats chasing fish. The acquisition of the boats and equipment is subsidized.

There is a diesel fuel tax rebate and all kinds of subsidies for commercial fishing, especially in Asia. The idea is to create economic incentives for sustainable fishing and conservation of the ocean.

If consumers and businesses give preference to sustainable fisheries, they send a powerful signal that there is a reward for improving fishing practices. Many of the nation's biggest seafood buyers are now making commitments to sustainable seafood.

The jury is still out on whether sustainable seafood can supply the biggest buyers in the nation. Much of imported farmed seafood is unsafe but the demand for fresh seafood has pushed many wild fisheries into crisis mode. This is what we can expect when a wild species is on the brink of extinction.

While freshwater fish have been farmed in the US, the offshore aquaculture industry is still in its infancy. Almost all farmed salmon are raised in offshore open net pens, where concentrated waste decimates the ecology of the coast. These salmon can escape and breed with local species, and throw off the wild breed's ability to reproduce.

Cramped pens necessitate the use of antibiotics. Red dye is fed to the fish to give the meat an appealing color.

All of these are reasons that salmon farming has been considered unsustainable. Salmon farmers harvest natural wild fish to feed their caged fish. The farming of salmon means raising meat by feeding it meat.

The salmon industry figures it's 1-to-1, still a wasteful ratio if you consider time, labor, land and transportation. Every time you eat a piece of farmed salmon, it takes away food from the wild fish trying to survive in the ocean. A few salmon farms in Europe claim to raise the fish sustainably. Those include Loch Duart salmon from Scotland which live a robust life, have plenty of room to grow, and is fed from sustainable sources that mimic the natural diet of the wild.

Loch Duart does not raise fish in high-density pens, allows areas to lie fallow in alternate years and does not use antibiotics, the company says. Yet a conservancy organization, Seafood Watch puts all farm-raised salmon in the "avoid" category. However, some question the ratings. While farmed clams, mussels and oysters are designated "best choice," no differentiation is made between regionally raised shellfish and oysters flown in from France and Australia, which cost much more in dollars and energy.

Conservancy organizations fear that NOAA is not taking precautions to make sure that offshore farms raising carnivorous fish do not dot our shorelines, damage ecology and deplete the oceans of wild fish. To pay for building new offshore facilities, entrepreneurs, are looking at farming the high-priced carnivorous species, such as tuna, which can require from 10 to 25 pounds of wild-caught small fish to produce 1 pound of edible meat.

Tuna ranching in the Mediterranean is a disaster in the making, because they're harvesting juvenile wild tuna for fattening, and you have a fishery where both the juvenile and adult tuna are being taken.

We need more aquaculture to meet global seafood supplies, and species that can be farmed in sustainable ways. Most of what we eat is farmed from China. The aquaculture practices damage the environment, and many use additives and antibiotics banned in the US. A new infrastructure must be put in place and several entrepreneurs are experimenting with more sustainable closed aquaculture systems.

Seafood designated as "good" and "best" are raised by more environmentally sustainable methods, including proceses that use closed recirculating systems and enclosed ponds. European waters are in trouble. It's been known for years that European seas are suffering from pollution, over-fishing and other environmental pressures.

But now, growing affluence in Europe is increasing the degradation of the water surrounding the continent. They found that more wealth in Europe has contributed to the environmental deterioration of European waters. In every sea, there was serious damage due to the pace of coastal development, the way we transport our goods and the way we produce our food on land as well as the sea. The study focused on four interrelated problems: Researchers wanted to look at the impact modern lifestyles have are having.

As affluence increases, so too does the amount of meat in European diets and an increase in the amount of farmland needed. The rise in fertilizer use ups the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching European waters, which can cause vast algae blooms in addition to reducing water quality.

Increased animal husbandry, results in an increase in the amount of ammonia released into the air which finds its way into the seas.

More money also means an increase in seaside homes and holiday resorts, particularly along the Mediterranean. Road and resort construction limits coastal habitats for fish. More demand for fish and increased shipping have put pressure on sea life. Controlling catch limits alone will not put a dent in the problem.

Global warming could cause a drop in the number of Arctic cod, which are a key component of the Arctic food web. The Arctic cod is prey for seals, narwhals and salmon in the Arctic, but global warming could be shaking up the food web and starving the cod because of shrinking and shifting pack ice. Global warming is pulling the rug out from beneath the Arctic's food supply because the survival of many plants and animals depends on the explosive summer bloom of marine plants under the sea ice.

With more sea ice melting the plants' bloom cycle is likely to be disrupted, jeopardizing the species that depend on it. In Canada, narwhals feed predominantly on the Arctic cod. They are also food for Atlantic salmon, Greenland halibut and Arctic char. The first action is to reduce pollution, especially toxins that build up over time in plants and animals.

Juvenile Arctic cod are vulnerable to toxins and oil spills. Overfishing is impacting the food supply for seals and whales and increasingly ice-free waters will open up new potential fishing grounds.

Commercial harvests should be closely monitored. The chief cause of the lack of fish is the overfishing that has grown in the past decades.

I worked in the commercial fishing fleet just after WW2 and spent months in the arctic. Fish "hauls' after WW2 were larger than ever seen as the fishing grounds had been empty during the war. Countries seeking a ban on bottom trawling in unregulated international waters failed to get UN support. Canada has been argued that stronger management would be more effective than a ban.

But environmentalists are dismayed. Bottom trawling causes irreparable harm to deep-sea ecosystems. Instead of the ban on bottom trawling on the high seas, the countries agreed to enhance protection measures under regional fisheries management organizations RFMO.

They will decide how assessments and enforcement would be carried out. For unregulated areas national governments are directed to police their own vessels, applying the same standards. If harm to the ocean is found occurring, governments would apply restrictions at their own discretion. The agreement applies to countries that don't belong to the RMO's and will protect fish stocks and sensitive areas. But the Ecology Action Centre said the decision would allow trawlers to continue ravaging the ocean floor.

Responsible fishing nations will bring forward precautionary and targeted regulations that will govern their fishing vessels. Just another example of how regulation fails to mitigate the problems of overpopulation. We assume there will always be another species to exploit after we've completely gone through the last one, but unless we change the way we manage the ocean species, this is the last century of wild seafood. Historical records show declining yields, in step with declining species diversity.

Zones of biodiversity loss also tended to see more beach closures, blooms of algae, and coastal flooding. Experiments in small, contained ecosystems show that reductions in diversity tend to bring reductions in the size and robustness of local fish stocks. The final part of the jigsaw is data from areas where fishing has been banned or heavily restricted.

These show that protection brings back biodiversity within the zone, and restores populations of fish just outside. We're learning that in the oceans, species are very strongly linked to each other. The study attributes damage to the cumulative harm done across the board. The benefits of marine-protected areas are clear in a few cases; there's no doubt that protecting areas leads to a lot more fish and larger fish, and less vulnerability. Protecting stocks demands the political will, lacking in Europe, where politicians have ignored recommendations to halt the North Sea cod fishery year after year.

Without a ban, the North Sea stocks could follow the Grand Banks cod of eastern Canada into terminal decline.

I was working on a North Sea trawler a few years after World War II and the catches were the largest ever seen, the crew told me. This was due to the halt in trawling for about 4 years during the war.

One wonders just how long it would take for the fisheries to regain their volume if in rotation we halted fishing in the various areas? An international team of researchers launched the Bahamas Biocomplexity Project--an interdisciplinary approach to ecosystem management to serve as a model for coral reef conservation.

The approach recognizes that natural and human systems are linked, and solutions must transcend traditional boundaries. The Bahamas Biocomplexity Project, in addition to using scientific tools, underwater surveys and population genetics, conduct surveys to assess local attitudes toward conservation, as well as explaining their findings to local decision makers.

A study focused on the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park, which was struck by a mysterious disease that virtually wiped out a species of sea urchin that feeds on algae.

The urchins had played a vital role in the reef ecosystem by controlling the spread of seaweed. With the urchins gone, the job of chief seaweed grazer was taken over by the parrotfish which in turn, are preyed upon by large carnivores, whose numbers had increased since the imposition of a fishing ban. Today, Nassau grouper is seven times more abundant inside the park than in three comparable areas. Researchers found that small species of parrotfish were smaller than usual, suggesting that grouper predators were picking off the largest members of their populations.

In contrast, the number of big parrotfish increased apparently in response to protection from fish traps. The study concluded that seaweed grazing had doubled because of the burgeoning population of big parrotfish. Parks protecting fishes may also have beneficial effects on corals, by enhancing grazing and thereby contributing to the ability of reefs to bounce back from disturbances.

One group team compared the DNA of staghorn corals collected from nine reefs. The results show that genetic family lines can be quite distinct on reefs as close as two kilometers. All reefs more than kilometers apart were genetically distinct. Some marine ecologists advocate restoring dying reefs, but that approach is rarely cost-effective, with a growth rate of about one centimeter per year. Social scientists working within the Bahamas Biocomplexity Project, noted: There is a special relationship between the people and the sea.

Tourism is based on environmental protection. Three researchers analyzed catches of five deepwater species from the northwest Atlantic and found that populations of all five had fallen precipitously.

Similar trends have been seen in European waters. Much of the blame is being put on commercial trawlers. Conservationists worry that because deepwater fish live long lives, and can take up to 25 years to sexually mature, overfishing can wipe them out.

This brings back a very personal memory. In the 's I was developing deep water fishing sonar and made frequent trips on deep sea trawlers to the arctic. Fishing after WW2, during which time little deep sea fishing was carried out, was fantastic. The volume of fish caught was beyond anyone's memory. I well remember the trawler sitting stationary for about 24 hours while the fish captured by one haul of the net was processed.

Perhaps "No Fishing" for five to ten years would allow the oceans to regenerate the shoals of fish. The Bush administration proposed legislation to overhaul management of the nation's fisheries, by giving regulators greater flexibility and encouraging them to privatize fisheries. Some environmental groups applauded privatization, others said the bill would weaken conservation rules. Bush's legislation would amend the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which was last updated in The Senate's Commerce Committee has been working on a draft of its own bill.

The administration's plan would double by the fisheries that are privatized where access is limited to those who own allocated shares, that can be bought and sold, of the annual catch. Some environmental groups, support privatization because it gives fishermen a financial incentive to conserve fidh stocks. In fisheries where such programs have been implemented, fishermen have enjoyed higher profits, lower costs, longer fishing seasons and a more stable industry.

The program has been popular in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska, but controversial in New England because of fears that it would allow corporations to take over the fisheries. The goal is to encourage eight new fisheries to use privatization programs. In New England, one could be on Cape Cod, where fishermen use hooks and gill nets to catch cod and haddock in near-shore waters.

The Bush plan would revoke the requirement that all fisheries be restored to healthy levels in 10 years and limits the number of fishing days given to New England groundfish boats. The Bush plan would allow regional councils to address the needs of fishing communities when rebuilding stocks.

The change would allow fishermen to catch more fish while stocks are rebuilding, and conservation groups worry that this would increase the chance that a species could collapse.

Some species, such as Georges Bank cod, have not recovered since the mids. Fishermen continue to take too many adult cod and not enough juvenile fish are surviving. A professor of natural resources said the new numbers show the government needs to impose further restrictions on fishing cod. But a spokeswoman for the New England Fishery Management Council said officials did not expect the rebuilding plan to show results for several more months. The average New England fisherman can take groundfish 53 days a year, down from 88 days in Cod once abounded off the Massachusetts coas, but fell in the mids because of overfishing.

Conservationists said the declining numbers mean federal authorities should protect nursery habitat as well as adult fish. A spokeswoman for NOAA's Fisheries Service, said under federal law regulators have to allow overfishing at times to minimize a rebuilding plan's impact on local commercial fishermen. She added that this week's scientific findings are preliminary. The National Marine Fisheries Service has released new guidelines for restoring depleted fish stocks, but some worry the rules unduly favor the fishing industry.

Current rules mandate that regional fisheries managers aim to restore stocks within 10 years. The proposed rules would let them devise timelines for restoration based on how long it would take to rebound if there were no fishing, plus the average time it takes the species to reach spawning age. This may lengthen the time managers have to restore some stocks.

The new rules would also allow coordinated management of species that live, swim, and get netted together, assuming that fish with similar life histories will respond to similar management plans.

But species might be minor to a commercial fishery but still play a key role in an ecosystem. Regulators voted to impose a permanent ban on trawling in depths beyond fathoms in nearly , square miles of Pacific waters off the West Coast.

The regulations apply to waters that extend from three miles to miles off the coasts of California, Oregon and Washington. It is aimed at protecting coral beds, kelp forests, rocky reefs and other sensitive fish habitat.

Trawl fishermen were skeptical it would boost declining stocks of groundfish but did not think the ban would hurt their livelihoods because most of the areas are too deep for trawlers. Environmentalists say trawling destroys delicate sea-floor habitat, but fishermen say there's no evidence that trawl fishing has affected groundfish stocks that make up West Coast commercial fishing. The council's decision follows a similar move by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, which regulates waters off the coast of Alaska.

They voted to ban trawling in more than , square miles off the Aleutian Islands. But the trade may empty the waters of this master of the sea. In the last 35 years, exploding markets have devastated many fisheries. Most vulnerable is the population that breeds in the Gulf of Mexico.

This was underscored by researchers who have tracked fish using electronic tags. The tuna that spawn in the west are further threatened by an ever-broadening fishery, all to supply the Japanese sushi trade. The new study is based on a decade-long effort to implant hundreds of sophisticated electronic tags in the giant fish that are beginning to reveal their ocean paths.

In this study, fish were tagged with devices that continually record body and water temperature, depth and daylight. The team showed that there appear to be distinct populations of bluefin, but when the fish disperse across to feed, they mingle, rendering the management boundary, which runs along the 45th meridian, relatively meaningless.

Big quotas, granted for two decades to countries fishing east of the line, probably added pressure to the ailing western bluefin population. Spawning "hot spots" overlap areas where boats, using long lines of baited hooks, pursue another tuna species. When big adult bluefin get caught, the warm water and their metabolism can push them beyond their physiological limits and many die before they can be released.

Recommended are seasonal bans on long-line fishing in spawning hot spots in the gulf and tighter controls on fishing in the Central Atlantic. American boat owners say that restrictions on long-line fishing in the Gulf are sufficient. Long-liners in the area use lightweight hooks that hold smaller yellowfin but are designed to uncoil under the powerful tug of a bluefin. Block said the same smaller hooks caught and killed a substantial number of bluefin.

The biggest question is whether the new information can change an international regulatory regime that almost everyone, agrees is broken. Sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and insomnia , as well as particularly short duration of sleep or particularly long duration of sleep, have been found to be associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk. Untreated celiac disease can cause the development of many types of cardiovascular diseases, most of which improve or resolve with a gluten-free diet and intestinal healing.

However, delays in recognition and diagnosis of celiac disease can cause irreversible heart damage. Cardiovascular disease affects low- and middle-income countries even more than high-income countries.

Psychosocial factors, environmental exposures, health behaviours, and health-care access and quality contribute to socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease. Particulate matter has been studied for its short- and long-term exposure effects on cardiovascular disease.

Existing cardiovascular disease or a previous cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke, is the strongest predictor of a future cardiovascular event. They include family history, coronary artery calcification score, high sensitivity C-reactive protein hs-CRP , ankle—brachial pressure index , lipoprotein subclasses and particle concentration, lipoprotein a , apolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogen , white blood cell count, homocysteine , N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP , and markers of kidney function.

Little is known about the relationship between work and cardiovascular disease, but links have been established between certain toxins, extreme heat and cold, exposure to tobacco smoke, and mental health concerns such as stress and depression.

A SBU-report looking at non-chemical factors found an association for those: Specifically the risk of stroke was also increased by exposure to ionizing radiation.

A SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to silica dust , engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heart disease. Workplace exposure to silica dust or asbestos is also associated with pulmonary heart disease.

There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenoxyacids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminium is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke. As of , evidence suggests that certain leukemia -associated mutations in blood cells may also lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesis , and cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality. Population-based studies show that atherosclerosis, the major precursor of cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood. The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth PDAY study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7—9 years.

This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease, [64] as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. Screening ECGs either at rest or with exercise are not recommended in those without symptoms who are at low risk.

Additionally echocardiography , myocardial perfusion imaging , and cardiac stress testing is not recommended in those at low risk who do not have symptoms. Some biomarkers may add to conventional cardiovascular risk factors in predicting the risk of future cardiovascular disease; however, the value of some biomarkers is questionable.

The NIH recommends lipid testing in children beginning at the age of 2 if there is a family history of heart disease or lipid problems. Screening and selection for primary prevention interventions has traditionally been done through absolute risk using a variety of scores ex. Framingham or Reynolds risk scores. The number and variety of risk scores available for use has multiplied, but their efficacy according to a review was unclear due to lack of external validation or impact analysis.

Most guidelines recommend combining preventive strategies. A Cochrane Review found some evidence that interventions aiming to reduce more than one cardiovascular risk factor may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference; however, evidence was limited and the authors were unable to draw firm conclusions on the effects on cardiovascular events and mortality.

It is unclear whether or not dental care in those with periodontitis affects their risk of cardiovascular disease. A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Total fat intake does not appear to be an important risk factor. A Cochrane review found unclear benefit of recommending a low-salt diet in people with high or normal blood pressure. Blood pressure medication reduces cardiovascular disease in people at risk, [94] irrespective of age, [] the baseline level of cardiovascular risk, [] or baseline blood pressure.

Statins are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in people with a history of cardiovascular disease.

Anti-diabetic medication may reduce cardiovascular risk in people with Type 2 Diabetes, although evidence is not conclusive. Aspirin has been found to be of only modest benefit in those at low risk of heart disease as the risk of serious bleeding is almost equal to the benefit with respect to cardiovascular problems. The use of vasoactive agents for people with pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease or hypoxemic lung diseases may cause harm and unnecessary expense.

A Cochrane review found some evidence that yoga has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cholesterol, but studies included in this review were of low quality. While a healthy diet is beneficial, the effect of antioxidant supplementation vitamin E , vitamin C , etc. Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused on diet and lifestyle interventions.

Proper CVD management necessitates a focus on MI and stroke cases due to their combined high mortality rate, keeping in mind the cost-effectiveness of any intervention, especially in developing countries with low or middle income levels. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in all regions except Africa. It is also estimated that by , over 23 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases each year.

This may be secondary to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Organizations such as the Indian Heart Association are working with the World Heart Federation to raise awareness about this issue. There is evidence that cardiovascular disease existed in pre-history, [] and research into cardiovascular disease dates from at least the 18th century. Recent areas of research include the link between inflammation and atherosclerosis [] the potential for novel therapeutic interventions, [] and the genetics of coronary heart disease.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cardiovascular disease Micrograph of a heart with fibrosis yellow and amyloidosis brown. Specialty Cardiology Usual onset Older adults [1] Types Coronary artery diseases , stroke , heart failure , hypertensive heart disease , rheumatic heart disease , cardiomyopathy [2] [3] Prevention Healthy eating , exercise, avoiding tobacco smoke, limited alcohol intake [2] Treatment Treating high blood pressure , high blood lipids , diabetes [2] Deaths Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease and Salt and cardiovascular disease.

Timeline of cardiovascular disease. Archived PDF from the original on The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Institute of Medicine of the National, eds. Promoting cardiovascular health in the developing world: Archived from the original on Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control 1 ed. Retrieved Nov 11, Kelly; Institute of Medicine; Fuster, Valentin Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: World J Cardiol Review.

Closing the Phenotype Gap in Precision Medicine". International Journal of Cardiology. International Journal of Endocrinology. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke.

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