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Constant interaction with the nomads led the Shang peoples to develop a culture that was malleable and receptive to outside influences, social structures, and political systems. Never again will he leave it. It is significant that traditions similar to the Babel story exist in various other ancient nations and even in primitive tribes. Come, let us go down, and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. Greenberg who passed away in I will continue using it and report more! I have been resigned to the fact that I would need to have surgery to get rid of the "hoods" my eyelids look like to me.
What can I do to prevent this in the future?
The evidence found so far indicates that Harappan civilization developed. Equally notable is the lack of. Skeletal remains, however, show that the dominant human type of the peoples who built the civilization was a tall, long faced, dark-haired strain much like those from the Mediterranean. The civilization was anchored on two cities: Harappa in the north on one.
These cities formed the town. That the many sites associated with the Harappan complex were part of one civilization has been established due to excavations of layer after layer of cities and towns rebuilt in the same way, with the same proportions, at the same locations.
Though hundreds of miles apart, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were remarkably similar in layout and construction. Both were built on a square grid pattern that was divided by main thoroughfares into 12 smaller and precisely measured grids.
Each of the cities was surrounded by walls, which extended one mile from east to west and one-half mile from north to south. The buildings of the cities and the surrounding walls were made of standardized kiln-dried bricks.
Controlled building on such a massive scale would have required an autocratic government with the capacity to organize and supervise the daily tasks of large numbers of laborers. This control appears to have extended to the. Harappans' domestic lives as well. The existence of a strong ruling class is also indicated by the presence. The citadel at Mohenjo-daro.
The elaborately decorated bath. Though the main avenues of the cities were straight and about 30 feet. Brick houses of one to three stories were jumbled together in these areas,. The layout of the houses was strikingly uniform in that each consisted of a. Entrance to the houses was gained through a long. The lack of ornamentation on the houses and the. Each of the homes had a bathing area and drains that emptied into a covered,. The Harappans apparently bathed standing up by pouring pitchers of water over their bodies.
Some scholars believe that bathing was related to religious rituals rather. Harappan Culture And Society. The great cities and many towns of the Harappan complex were supported by a rather advanced agricultural system based on the cultivation of wheat, rye,. Cotton was widely cultivated and numerous. It is likely that irrigation systems were. The cities of Harappa were major trading centers. Jade from present-day China and precious jewels from.
Mesopotamian peoples with whom they had contacts, and their weapons were even more primitive. They lacked swords, tipped their spears with bronze points so thin that they would crumble on contact, and used stone for their arrowheads. These shortcomings may have proven fatal to the survival of the Harappan. Harappan society was dominated by a powerful priestly class that ruled.
Though there may have been. The location of granaries. The priests derived their impressive control over city and town dwellers. Several of the gods are depicted on the undeciphered seals that are. On some of the seals he is pictured in a crossed-legged posture of. Numerous figurines of females, also naked except for a great deal of jewelry,. These "mother goddesses" appear to have been objects of. The obsession with fertility was also reflected in the veneration of. Along with a handful of.
The control exhibited by the uniformity and rigid ordering of Harappan. It is probable that members of this class and possibly. Characteristically, size - not decoration - set their dwellings off from the. Outside of the two great cities, the subjects of the priest-rulers were. It was once widely accepted that Harappan civilization was the victim of. A dramatic vision of a wave of.
Archeological investigations carried out in recent decades. The precise causes of that decline remain. The later layers of building at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. There also are a few smashed skulls, but. It is likely that a combination of factors led to Harappa's demise. Shifts in the monsoon pattern and changes in temperature may. Rapid changes in types of pottery suggest a series of sudden waves of migrants. It is possible that the Harappans were too weak militarily to.
The marked decline in the quality of building and town planning indicates. Some of the migrants probably were.
But the Aryan pastoralists may have consciously destroyed or neglected the dikes and canals on which the agrarian. Extensive cattle raising would then. That there was a good deal of violent conflict in. Groups of skeletons in postures of flight. There is evidence of. Himalayas to the north. Thus, a combination of factors brought an end to. These factors also gave rise to an extended. In their size, complexity, and longevity, the first civilizations to.
The loess zone and north. China plain where the Shang and Zhou empires took hold became the center of a. Though regions farther south, such. The Indus valley proved capable of nurturing a civilization that. But when Harappa collapsed, the plains of. Though the Indus would. The contrast between the fate of the original geographical centers of. Indian and Chinese civilizations is paralleled by the legacy of the. Harappa was destroyed and it disappeared from. Though the peoples who built the Indus complex.
Harappan tanks or public bathing. Their techniques of growing rice and cotton were preserved by cultivating. Virtually everything else was lost. In contrast to the civilizations of. Mesopotamia, which fell but were replaced by new civilizations that preserved. Their remarkably advanced standards for the measurement of. Their system of writing was forgotten,. Harappan skills in community planning, sewage control,. The Harappan penchant for standardization, discipline, and.
In contrast to the civilization of the Indus valley, the original. Shang and Zhou walled towns. The founders of the Shang. Above all, the system of writing that developed in connection with Shang. Chinese characters provided the basis for the educational system and. In contrast to India, many of the. This persistence has made for a continuity of. It has also meant that China, like the early civilizations of. Mesopotamia, was one of the great sources of civilizing influences in human.
Though the area affected by ideas and institutions. Mesopotamia bequeathed writing, law, and their other great achievements,. Writing and political organization were two areas in which the. In later periods Chinese thought and other modes of cultural expression such.
China's technological innovation was to have an impact on civilized. Beginning with the increasingly sophisticated irrigation systems, the Chinese.
In the Shang-Zhou era they also pioneered key manufacturing. The reasons for the differing legacies of India and China are numerous. But critical to the disappearance of the first and the resilience. In the Indian case, the nomadic threat was remote, perhaps. The Harappan peoples were deficient in military.
When combined with natural calamities, the waves. Harappan peoples to resist or absorb. The gap between the nomads' herding. Conflict between them may well have proven fatal to a. The loess regions of northern China were open to invasions or migrations. Peoples from these areas were moving almost continuously into the core zones. The constant threat the nomads posed forced the. Contrasting cultures and ways of life enhanced the sense of identity.
The obvious nomadic presence prodded these same. Constant interaction with the nomads led the Shang peoples to. Nomadic energies reinvigorated and. The spread of the Aryan pastoralists into the hills and plains of. Purchasing will be used to order the ingredients used by Recipes and write all receipts to Inventory. Our solution can handle multiple units of measure such as one for orders and one for consumption ordering in bags of flour and consuming in lbs of flour , or in the case of a finished goods, one for a production run eachs and one for sales boxes, cases, etc.
Lot numbers of both ingredients consumed in the work orders and lot numbers for finished goods are recorded for later retrieval and reporting. A planning function is included as part of the Recipes production process. We then integrate this data with Distribution to allow for the selling and shipping of all products. Finally, our Accounting modules incorporates solutions that can record and report all dollars - thus providing a complete Total Solution for the business.
A client site located system that addresses all of the Distribution requirements for the wholesale and business to business market. The system can be used by both discrete and process manufactures. By the time the Jews left Egypt for Canaan, astrology had infected the population there. Hence, some of the strictest warnings in the Bible against astrology date from this period Lev.
Still later, astrology entered the religious life of Rome. The interesting thing about these biblical denunciations of astrology is that astrology is identified with demonism or Satanism in the sense that Satan and his hosts were actually being worshiped in the guise of the signs or planets.
This is the reason for the Bible's denunciation of these practices. Are we to think, then, that Satan was entirely absent from the original attempt build a civilization without God? Was sent from the formation of this first biblical religion? I don't think so. If as, then the religion of the tower actually a satanic attempt to direct worship of the human race to himself those former angels who, having rebelled against God, were now already demons. No doubt, as Morris suggests, "This project was originally presented to people in the guise of true spirit.
The tower in its lofty grandeur d symbolize the might and majesty of the true God of heaven. A great temple at its apex would provide a center and an altar where men could offer their sacrifices and worship God. The signs of zodiac would be emblazoned on the ornate ceiling and walls of the temple, signifying the great story of creation and redemption, as told by the antediluvian patriarchs. Thus, the forms of religion became increasingly debased, the worship of the devil and his became more noticeable.
Satan is a great corrupter, so it is even possible that this system of religion was version of an earlier, true revelation heavens of God's plan of redemption has been suggested seriously and considerable evidence that the formations of stars were originally named by God or the godly patriarchs as a reminder of godly things, perhaps to the point of forecasting the coming of the great Deliverer who would crush the head of Satan.
The time when the Lord Jesus Christ was to crush Satan's head was still far off, but in the meantime God was going to crush this first attempt at Satanism. He was not going to do it with flood or fire or some other fierce manifestation of His invincible wrath. He was going to do it in an entirely unlooked-for manner. Instead of destruction, God performed a miracle in the minds and vocal cords of the builders. He confused their language so that now, instead of speaking together and working together, their words brought confusion and an inevitable because it was divinely appointed scattering of these people over the earth.
There are several interesting features of this part of the story. The first is a second use of the word "come. Come, let us build ourselves a city" vv. But now God uses the word as He assembles His heavenly council and moves to confuse their language: It is a way of saying that God always has the last word.
Like Jonah, we can say "but" to God Jonah 1: We can assemble our councils; but God will assemble His council, and the decree of God's council will prevail. It follows that those who choose to go their own way will always end up frustrated. The prize so earnestly sought after becomes a bubble that bursts at the first touch. The fruit of desire becomes like ashes in the mouth.
We may chafe against this, but it will always be this way because we live in God's world, not our own, and because God has determined to make bitter anything that is prized above Himself. The second interesting feature of this part of the story is that God came down to see the tower the men of Babylon were building. This is an anthropomorphism, that is, God being described as if He were a man.
We are not to think that God actually had to get off the throne of the universe and come down to earth to determine what the builders were doing. All things are known to God always. But it is not a "crude anthropomorphism," as some have chosen to call it. It is used with effect. Here were men attempting to build a great tower. The top was to reach to the heavens. It was to be so great that it and the religion and defiance of God it represented would make a reputation for these citizens of Shinar.
There it stood, lofty in its unequaled grandeur. But when God wants to look at it He comes down. He has to stoop low to see this puny extravagance. It is always thus. When you stand on the ground and look up at the great pyramids of Egypt they seem immense.
But when you fly over them in an airplane, even at a low altitude, they seem like pimples on the surface of the earth. But from the air they look like miniature dominoes. The Eiffel Tower is a mere protuberance. So also with our intellectual or spiritual achievements.
The greatest is nothing compared to the immensity of the universe, not to mention the universe's Creator. The only truly significant accomplishments are God's sometimes in and through us , for only these partake of the nature of God and endure forever, as God does.
We have seen two different uses of the word "come" in this story. The first was spoken by man to man against God. The second was spoken by God to God another early intimation of the Trinity against man.
It would not be right to end without noting that the Bible also knows. God says, "Come now, let us reason together--Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be as wool" Isa.
Jesus says, "Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest" Matt. What is the result when we who hear God's invitation come to Him? It is just as He says! Our sins are washed away. Our burdens are lifted.
Our spiritual thirst is quenched. Moreover, the effects of the curse are overturned and the proper desires of the human heart are provided for, not by man in rebellion against God, to be sure, but by the gracious and forgiving God Himself from whom all truly good gifts come.
The curse was the confusion of languages, but God brings blessing from the curse. He gives understanding in spite of the language barrier and even promises Pentecost is an earnest of the fulfillment that the nations will worship together, presumably in one voice and with full understanding of each other. The Babylonians wanted a city. Their city could not stand.
But God provides His people with a city with foundations that will endure forever. Nimrod's people wanted a name. But to those who stand with God and who overcome, God promises: Never again will he leave it. I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from my God; and I will also write on him my new name.
He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches" Rev. As far as the great proliferation of different languages among men is concerned, the Biblical account is the only satisfactory explanation. If all men came from one ancestral population, as most evolutionary anthropologists believe today, they originally all spoke the same language. As long as they lived together, or continued to communicate with one another, it would have been impossible for the wide differences in human languages to have evolved.
Therefore, if anthropologists insist on an evolutionary explanation for the different languages, then they must likewise postulate extremely long periods of isolation and inbreeding for the different tribes, practically as long as the history of man himself. This in turn means that each of the major language groups must be identical with a major racial group. Therefore, each "race" must have had a long evolutionary history, and it is natural to assume that some races have evolved more than others.
This natural association of racism with evolutionary philosophy is quite significant and has been the pseudoscientific basis of a wide range of racist political and religious philosophies that have wrought untold harm and misery over the years.
On the other hand, it does seem obvious that all the different nations, tribes, and languages among men do have a common origin in the not-too-distant past.
People of all nations are all freely interfertile and of essentially equal intelligence and potential educability. Even the "aborigines" of Australia are quite capable of acquiring Ph.
Even though their languages are widely different from each other, all can be analyzed in terms of the science of linguistics, and all can be learned by men of other languages, thus demonstrating an original common nature and origin. There is really only one kind of man-namely mankind!
In actuality there is only one race among men--the human race. The source of the different languages cannot be explained in terms of evolution, though the various dialects and similar languages within the basic groups are no doubt attributable to gradual diversification from a common source tongue.
But the major groups are so fundamentally different from each other as to defy explanation in any naturalistic framework. Only the Bible provides an adequate explanation. Originally, after the great Flood, "the whole earth was of one language and one speech" Gen. Because of man's united rebellion against God, however, refusing to scatter throughout the world as He had commanded, and concentrating instead in the vicinity of the original Babylon, "the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: Presumably about seventy families were involved in this dispersion, as suggested by the enumeration of seventy original national groups and tongues in the so-called Table of Nations in Genesis These were represented originally by perhaps a thousand or so individuals, divided into three main ancestral family bodies, the Japhethetic, Hamitic, and Semitic.
The rebellion at Babel was not some impossible undertaking, such as attempting to reach heaven with a man-made tower, as one might infer from the King James translation of Genesis The words "may reach" are not in the original; the correct sense of the passage apparently connotes the erection of a great temple-tower dedicated to the worship of the "host of heaven," uniting all mankind in worshiping and serving the creature rather than the Creator Rom.
The most effective way of halting this blasphemy and of enforcing God's command to fill the earth was that of confounding their languages. If people could not communicate with each other, they could hardly cooperate with each other. This primeval confusion of tongues emphasizes what modern man often fails to realize: When men could no longer understand each other, there was finally no alternative for them but to separate from each other.
If anyone is inclined to question this explanation of the origin of the major differences among languages, then let him offer a naturalistic explanation that better accounts for all the facts. No one has done so yet. Obviously a miracle was involved, but the gravity of the rebellion warranted God's special intervention.
Although the major language groups are so different from each other as to make it inconceivable that they could have evolved from a common ancestral language group except, as noted above, by such a long period of racial segregation as to cause the corresponding races to evolve to different levels themselves , the very fact that all the languages can be evaluated by common principles of linguistics, and that people can manage to learn other languages than their own, implies an original common cause for all of them.
Noam Chomsky, who is one of the world's foremost linguists, is convinced that languages, though completely different on the surface, reflect an underlying commonality related to the fundamental uniqueness of man himself. Gunther Stent, professor of molecular biology at the University of California Berkeley , has summarized Chomsky's concepts as follows:.
Chomsky holds that the grammar of a language is a system of transformational rules that determines a certain pairing of sound and meaning. It consists of a syntactic component, a semantic component, and a phonological component. The surface structure contains the information relevant to the phonological component, whereas the deep structure contains the information relevant to the semantic component, and the syntactic component pairs surface and deep structures.
Hence, it is merely the phonological component that has become greatly differentiated during the course of human history, or at least since the construction Tower of Babel. No doubt the Tower of Babel is merely a figure of speech to Stent as well as to Chomsky, but the figure is appropriate precisely because the miraculous confusion of tongues at Babel does provide the only meaningful explanation for the phenomena of human languages. Thus the "phonological component" of speech or its surface form is the corpus of sounds associated with various meanings, through which people of a particular tribe actually communicate with each other.
Each phonology is different from the phonology of another tribe so that one group cannot understand the other group. Nevertheless at the "semantic" level, the deep structure, the "universal grammar" the inner man! It was the phonologies or surface forms of languages, that were supernaturally confused at Babel, so that even though all still had the same basic logic and understanding of experience, they could no longer work together and, thus, finally they could no longer stay together, simply because they could no longer talk together.
It is significant that traditions similar to the Babel story exist in various other ancient nations and even in primitive tribes. Although not as frequently encountered as traditions of the great Flood, many tribes do have a tradition of a former age when all people spoke the same language until the languages were confused as a judgment of the gods. Thus there is good reason to accept the Biblical record of the confusion of tongues at Babel as the true account of the origin of the different major language groups of the world.
Evolutionists certainly have no better answer, and the only reason why modern scientists tend to reject it is because it was miraculous. To say that it would have been impossible, however, is not only to deny God's omnipotence but also to assert that scientists know much more about the nature of language than they do.
No one yet adequately understands the brain and its control of human speech. Therefore, no one understands what manner of physiologic changes in the brain and central nervous system would be necessary to cause different groups of people to associate different sounds with any given concept. Perhaps future research will throw light on this phenomenon but, in the meantime, there is no better explanation than that it was God who did "there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech" Gen.
Chapter One from "The Origin of Speeches: Isaac Mozeson and Mr. Joshua Ben to be published in the U. Genesis 11 and The Tower of Babel episode B. Introduction of "The Word", pages Recommended Readings: Naturally, it is the last place that historical linguists will look for answers to the mysteries of the existence and dispersion of human language.
In the familiar K. In the less familiar Hebrew it sounds this way: If you can hear those echoes of Eden in the English words, it's all the more amazing that "scholars" or "scientists" could not or would not hear them all this time. Fitting the historical movement of this chapter, most people first accepted the existence of The Tower of Babel and its ramifications of an involved Creator , then modern linguists rejected it as a myth. Finally, contemporary linguists have come to accept an archaeological Tower of Babel, and even the concept of an original global human language -- as long as there is no deity first creating, then "confusing" or diversifying tongues.
The premier evolutionists and linguists concede that human language and the uniquely human capacity for language is a mystery. Middling academics and writers see C in the readings above still posit that humans developed grammars and vocabularies out of simian gestures and grunts.
All of them in Saddam's hometown. One doesn't have to be a U. The precise site of the ancient Tower of Babel is a matter of uncertainty for there are remnants of several ruins in the region that are possibilities. Many writers, following Jewish and Arab traditions, locate the Tower ruins at Borsippa the "Tongue Tower" , about 11 miles southwest of the northern portion of Babylon formerly a suburb of the city.
Others identify the site with Etemen-an-ki "the temple of the foundation of heaven and earth" , which is located in the southern sector of the city near the right bank of the Euphrates river.
One or the other of these ruins may represent the archaeological "descendant" of the original Tower of Babel. Unfortunately, natives have been borrowing bricks from these sites for millennia. The Tower of Babel will have to be reconstructed brick-by-brick, word-by-word, in the study of Edenics. Cultures as diverse and far apart as the Chinese and Maya have ancient traditions about a single, global language and an instant diversification by the Creator. Scholars shrug this off as a coincidental myth.
Does Genesis specifically say that Adam and Eve were created with a divine language, or that Hebrew was the language of Eden and the angels? No, but there are verbatim quotes of the Creator, the angels even in later books like Ezekiel , and Adam and Eve that are always and only in Hebrew. Other Genesis passages quote these first homo sapiens thinkers. Later on you will encounter Adam's naming of animals Genesis 3: Check with your favorite Bible for Genesis 2: There, the first modern human has the divine spirit blown into his nostrils -- perhaps blowing out the suddenly large brain case of this strangely divine animal.
Sapient means thinking, and unlike emoting, thinking requires language. Whichever way you interpret it, Adam receives the ability to think abstractly, truly something no animal can do, and something that classifies humans as being "in the image of God". The antagonist of Eden, the Nakhash, also speaks.
Either way, the Nakhash is not considered rational enough to be given any rules, or to get a hearing after he has broken those rules. Importantly, the Nakhash would only later become the limbless all tail, all animal snake, who abused and lost his ability to chew food snakes merely swallow , and has abused and lost the human ability to speak snakes merely hiss.
Just as the Bible references place names before they were named, Nakhash is named Serpent before this aspiring top animal was justly demoted to the lowest of reptiles. The Nakhash of Eden is relevant here as foil to homo sapiens, Man the thinker and speaker. No matter how well Edenics defends the Biblical thesis, it may not be true that ALL humans think in Edenic, and the output stage, or spoken language, is always a simple variation of the Edenic.
There is one exception that proves the rule. The exception is the language of the African Hottentots. This isolated tribe speaks in an elaborate code of clicks and whistles -- not with the usual consonants whose variants we shall soon study nor the ordinary vowels which even vary within neighborhoods of large cities. Are the non-speaking Hottentots truly human? I don't think such drastic theories are necessary.
Perhaps some children got lost and isolated from other speakers, and so developed a code of signals instead of the usual verbal phrases. Yes, there is the apocryphal story of a king who raised children without contact with speech It's not anywhere near that simple -- even if language, originally Edenic, was hard wired in the human brain. This is why Edenics will require the mastering of several basic linguistic givens, and a scientific, not a mystical, way to see that even Chinese, with its many dropped consonants replaced by tones, is a form of the language of Eden.
Language for homo sapiens is factory-installed, the language program that came with our neurological and other anatomical hardware. No mentally disturbed cat ever barked like a dog, but there is a paranormal, but not rare, phenomenon among humans where a speaker in a self-hypnotic trance can "speak in tongues". More rare and less documented or understood is the phenomenon called Xenoglossia. This involves the ability to spontaneously speak a foreign language without prior exposure.
If this is ever scientifically confirmed, it would surely support the Edenics scenario, where people all have an original computing language primal language program, and are only a neurological disturbance such as at Babel away from being able to access even long dead languages. The original 70 super-languages were variants of Edenic much like a spectrum bends light to different colors. The analogy may be all the more appropriate if the Creator only made the rainbow after the Deluge.
In any case, the dominant activity of early Genesis creation involves "separation" or diversity. The Creator made the original or "pure" forms of language or dog. In the genome schema was the ability to adapt and diversify. The second most significant Biblical verse on language, after Genesis 11, is at the other end of the Hebrew Bible, and forms a second bookend to it.
The existence of a Sacred Tongue is a given, and the prophet Zephaniah must be referring to that same pre-Babel Edenic language of Genesis Here, in Zephaniah 3: Knowledge of this global, unifying, uncorrupted language is envisioned to be a significant part of the worldwide god-consciousness of the Messianic Era.
So, when will the Messianic Era be fully here? When enough of you Edenics students do teaching and www posting, and when the research is strong enough to convince everyone, of every tongue, that proof of our one Creator is at the tip of our tongues. Some interesting illustrations of this involve Christopher Columbus. His expedition left the rabidly anti-Jewish Inquisition Spain at the same time of the Spanish Expulsion of the world's major Jewish community.
No Jew was to be given a reprieve from the public pyres of the Inquisition with a ticket on the Nina, Pinta or Santa Maria, yet Columbus was permitted to bring a Hebrew speaker on board. When they encountered exotic natives of new lands it was assumed that only a Hebrew speaker would be able to communicate with them. He named it a TooKey exotic bird in Hebrew.
Others heard it as "turkey", perhaps assuming that the country of Turkey was somehow involved with the search for a passage to India. This was heard as "carib", and so the region of the Carib people came to be called the Caribbean.
The next chapter will involve the relatively few words from actual, historical Hebrew words. After that, we'll concentrate on Edenic words from pre-history. The paragraph above is only to illustrate the then catholic worldwide acceptance that Hebrew was the Mother Tongue. For all the spread of Biblical knowledge that the conquering and colonizing European Catholicism can be "credited" for, it is only with the rise of Protestantism that the root language of the Bible can be heard above the Latin.
After all, Catholicism de-emphasizes Bible reading, so centuries of new Christians were barely aware of Biblical texts about language, or the literal Hebrew roots of their faith. More specifically, only when Puritan Protestantism emerges do we first find Christian scholars actively venerating Hebrew, rather than classical Greek and Latin.
John Milton achieved a remarkable familiarity with the Hebrew of the Bible and of Biblical commentaries, and it informs his epics like "Paradise Lost". The Puritans of New England politicize their Hebraism, considering themselves the new Adams in a new world, and the new Hebrews in a promised land.
On Burial Hill in Plymouth, Mass. The University of Kentucky website presents the following on Bradford, which may inspire many of us to take up Hebrew. In , three years after he had ceased to chronicle the happenings at Plymouth for posterity, and at the age of sixty years, William Bradford took up the study of Hebrew.
He explained why, at an advanced age, he had embarked on a new path of learning: It was also Bradford's way of returning to the origins of Christianity, thus of purifying his faith by seeking a more direct, unmediated experience of divinity.
Rather than English biblical scriptures translated from the Latin, themselves translated from the Greek and [a surface level treatment of] Hebrew texts, Bradford wanted the originals in that "holy tongue" used to name things "at the Creation".
It will soon be clear when we get to animal names, parts of the body, etc. The first universities in America, Harvard and Yale, have Hebrew among their course requirements and their school mottos.
The first doctoral dissertation in the New World, at Harvard's school of divinity, is about Hebrew as the Mother Tongue. A century later the Continental Congress debated whether Hebrew should become the new American language.
Can you imagine if Hebrew would now be the world's lingua franca, as English is now?! However, regional rivals to the New England divinity-schooled delegates insisted that German or French would better serve as a break from the British. Practicality won out in the end, and English was retained. Noah Webster, America's premier lexicographer, gives many "Shemitic" Semitic etymologies as sources for English words in what was supposed to be the great American dictionary.
In contrast, the Oxford English Dictionary, says "origin unknown". Webster's work would soon be eclipsed by the British Ben Johnson, and the European's new thinking that Biblical theories were embarrassingly old fashioned in their new Man-centered Age of Reason. The Mother Tongue stuff was now an old wives' tale of ancient superstition. Benign neglect of things Biblical becomes sharpened to academic hostility as Eighteenth Century rationalism is stirred first by Darwinism and then by the pre-Nazi ideas of the Nineteenth Century.
Not only is industrial Man in charge of his destiny, not some mythical creator, but the human species is the fittest, and some races are the most fit to survive. If God was dead, the concept of language being a divine gift was stillborn. Linguistics becomes a racially-tinged science in the age when the skulls of non-Aryans are measured for their racial inferiority.
Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Man is not about to consider the sanctity of language in the age of propaganda and advertising, and when linguists think of the origin of words, they hear no more than the grunts of gorillas. To post-Darwinian secularists, the concept of human language being created, and not evolved from ape-men, is dangerously mythic, primitive and medieval. Even for many ministers, priests and rabbis, a literal acceptance of the Tower of Babel scenario Genesis 11 and a belief in Hebrew as the Mother Tongue is overly fundamentalist.
There are even many fundamentalist Christians today who feel that the Hebrew as Mother Tongue thesis overly emphasizes the Bible's Hebrew or Jewish roots, so they feel vaguely threatened.
But Edenics is a science-based faith, not a faith-based science, so let us put any doctrinal differences aside. On the contrary, Edenics students will see that believers in secular theories about the origin of ratiocination the uniquely human ability to think and speak are the alchemists of voodoo science, the die-hard fanatics of a soon-to-be bygone era.
It is the atheists who have taken a blind leap of faith into nihilism, and have missed the elaborate patterning that makes it obvious that language in its pristine state -- Edenics, as documented in Biblical Hebrew -- has been created by the same unparalleled Engineer of anatomy, chemistry and physics.
Secular revelation's first commandment is "Evolution is the Lord thy God". The priests of godlessness can tell us that porpoises have leg-bones, and were once land creatures, but not WHY most species don't simply fail to survive as not the "fittest".
WHY does the fossil record show no land mammals in the million-year process of becoming marine animals? The possibility of a Creator instantly morphing or "evolving" several species who couldn't make it to Noah's ark and allowing them to survive the Flood is not considered. Secular science has eliminated the consideration of any divine care that may be behind Genesis, the adaptability of the created animal kinds, or, for us bipeds, the de-evolution of the original human programming language.
This Big Bang of language diversity was to have happened at Babel -- traditionally breaking up the language of Eden into 70 superfamilies. To follow the 70, see Genesis 10 where 70 ur-nations are listed , Genesis