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Principles of Ecology (Powerpoint Slides) – Chapter 2
The recipes are easy to prepare and great for the body. A mandatory laboratory component supports and amplifies the lecture material and allows the student to study microscopic anatomy on slides and to perform dissection on representative animal models. This course covers special topics of financial accounting, auditing, tax, or managerial accounting. Learner strengths will be assessed and analytical, relational, and resilience skills will be developed. It provides students with an extensive background in athletic training and acute and emergency care as a profession. A project based course which focuses on the use of Microsoft Excel to communicate in a professional setting.

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Nutrition Resources

Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology, 34, Rethinking nutritional support of the cancer patient: Seminars in Oncology, 21 6 Supportive nutrition to prevent cachexia and improve quality of life.

Seminars in Oncology, 22 2 Supp 3 , Definition of standardized nutritional assessment and interventional pathways in oncology. Nutrition, 12 1 SS Standards of nutrition therapy. Cancer, 43 Supp 5 , I further pledge to promote excellence in the dietetic profession: The Code of Ethics was developed by Dietitians of Canada and officially adopted by the provincial dietetic associations and regulatory bodies:.

Who we are Our dietitians are registered and members of the College of Dietitians of British Columbia. Our team consists of: Oncology Nutrition provides ongoing education opportunities: Monthly Lunch and Learn teleconference educational forum. Please contact us for more information.

Nutrition symptom management guidelines. Tumour and treatment nutrition side effects. The Dietitians of Canada Oncology Network. You must be a member of Dietitians of Canada to join this network. It will provide you with current nutrition oncology information through a quarterly publication, allow you to share ideas, experiences and network with others through their Infoletter and access oncology resources.

It delivers evidence-based guidance to nutrition practice questions on a broad spectrum of topics, including oncology nutrition. It promotes quality nutrition practice in cancer treatment, prevention, survivorship and edcuation. BC Cancer library resources. Nutritional care in Oncology. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Histological and global gene expression analysis of the 'lactating' pigeon crop.

Vultures of the seas: Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue. Journal of Anatomy Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocoracidae, Aves.

Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. A tropical horde of counterfeit predator eyes. Instructed learning in the auditory localization pathway of the Barn Owl. The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. Wild Bird Society of Japan, Tokyo. Use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls.

The integration of energy and nitrogen balance in the hummingbird Sephanoides sephaniodes. Does gut function limit hummingbird food intake?

Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Pressures produced when penguins pooh—calculations on avian defaecation. Scare tactics in a neotropical warbler: Gliding flight and soaring. Theoretical Ecology Series, vol. Modelling the flying bird C. Structure, form, and function of flight in engineering and the living world. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends in Ecology and Evolution The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube.

Between air and water: Use of prey hotspots by an avian predator: Structure and mechanical behavior of a toucan beak. Movement and direction of movement of a simulated prey affect the success rate in Barn Owl Tyto alba attack. Musculoskeletal underpinnings to differences in killing behavior between North American accipiters Falconiformes: Accipitridae and falcons Falconidae.

Journal of Morphology, online early. Le Bohec, and Y. Adjustments of gastric pH, motility and temperature during long-term preservation of stomach contents in free-ranging incubating King Penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology A tough nut to crack. Adaptations to seed cracking in finches. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc-eating in a shorebird. Optimizing gizzard size in the face of seasonal demands.

How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: Functional morphology of raptor hindlimbs: The turning- and linear-maneuvering performance of birds: Canadian Journal of Zoology Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture. A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems. I - Introduction to Birds.

VII - Circulatory System. Back to Avian Biology. Drawings of the digestive tracts of A a Greylag Goose and B a Wild Turkey and retention times of a solute, 2-mm particles, and 8-mm particles in the goose and turkey digestive systems Figure from Frei et al. The closed, air-filled spaces reduce overall weight without loss of rigidity. The capillary ratchet mechanism Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: The serrated leading-edge feather of an owl Norberg Vortex generators on an airplane wing.

Fish-eating species like cormorants below - typically have small, undifferentiated tongue because fish are often swallowed whole. Representative caterpillar false eyes and faces. In some, like woodpeckers, the 'sticky' saliva aids in capturing prey. In others, like swifts, saliva is used in nest building see photo below. The muscular walls of the esophagus produce wave-like contractions peristalsis that help propel food from the oral cavity to the stomach.

Anhinga swallowing a large fish. HCL and pepsinogen are secreted by the deep glands see photomicrograph below.

Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin a proteolytic, or protein-digesting, enzyme by the HCl. The cuticle is secreted by simple tubular glands see photomicrograph below. Grinding action may, particularly in seed-eating birds, be assisted by grit and stones deliberately ingested. The avian gastrointestinal tract, unlike that of mammals, executes distinct reverse peristaltic movements that are critical to optimal digestive function Duke The gastric reflux allows material in the gizzard to reenter the proventriculus for additional treatment with acid and pepsin.

Villi are projections from the intestinal wall that increase the amount of surface area available for absorption. Further increasing the surface area are the numerous microvilli of the cells lining the surface of the villi. Inside each villus are blood vessels that absorb nutrients for transport throughout the body. Caeca are histologically similar to the small and large intestines and found in a wide variety of birds.

In these large ceca, food particles are acted upon by cecal secretions, bacteria, and fungi and nutrients can be absorbed.

Lymphoid ceca are not important in digestion but contain lymphocytes white blood cells that produce antibodies Clench At various times and under various conditions, ceca are the site for 1 fermentation and further digestion of food especially for the breakdown of cellulose and absorption of nutrients, 2 production of antibodies, and 3 the use and absorption of water and nitrogenous components Clench The bursa is most prominent in young birds and serves as the area where B-lymphocytes the white blood cells that produce antibodies are generated T-lymphocytes are generated in the Thymus.

Bile emulsifies fats or, in other words, breaks fats down into tiny particles. Emulsification is important because it physically breaks down fats into particles than can then be more easily digested by enzymes lipase produced by intestinal cells and the pancreas.

This 'juice' contains a bicarbonate solution that helps neutralize the acids coming into the intestine from the stomach plus a variety of digestive enzymes.

The enzymes help break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon which regulate blood sugar levels cells that produce these two hormones make up the 'islets of Langerhans', one of which is represented by the light-colored, circular structure in the photomicrograph below.

Hit 'Reload' or 'Refresh' to View Again! Particle retention time hr. Flamingos use a series of projections, or lamellae, to filter tiny food items from debris in the water. Wrens use their thin, probing bill to capture small insects. Curlews use their long bill to probe mudflats for small invertebrates. Finches do not simply bite the seeds; instead; the lower mandible is moved toward the tip of the bill in a slicing motion.

When most of the coat has been cracked or removed, the lower mandible is moved from side to side to remove the rest of the shell, thus releasing the kernel. Some large finches also have raised hard surfaces in the upper palate that function as anvils so large seeds can be held firmly while the lower mandible slices and cracks the sides of the seed.

As tricky as nutcracking sounds, most birds accomplish it rapidly, shelling small seeds in a few seconds and large finches can crack open and devour a large seed or nut in less than twenty seconds. Big mouths get hummingbirds an in-flight meal - Hummingbirds have bendy lower beaks to help them catch insects Yanega and Rubega The flexibility allows long-beaked birds to open their mouths wide enough to hunt on the wing.

Hummingbirds use their long, narrow beaks to probe flowers for nectar, but they also need insects for essential nutrients. It wasn't clear how they could catch them; birds that hunt flying insects usually have short beaks to help them open their mouths wide.

Pilcher, Nature Science Update. The force produced by talons may be related to time of activity. Owls hunt when light levels are low so if an attacking owl misses its prey, relocating it may be difficult. Hawks are diurnal hunters and can use visual cues during and after an attack. If unable to subdue prey initially, they can relocate prey visually and catch it.

Given the morphological differences and hunting behaviors of these raptors, how well do those characteristics relate to prey-size selection? Eastern Screech-Owls prey on insects, small birds, and small mammals.

Red-tailed Hawks subsist primarily on rodents and larger mammals such as skunks and rabbits. Red-shouldered Hawks , like Barred Owls, subsist mainly on medium-sized mammals such as squirrels and chipmunks, but also prey on frogs and salamanders. American Kestrels , like Eastern Screech-Owls, eat mostly insects and small mammals. Bristles occur most prominently around the eyes "eyelashes" , the lores, the nostrils, and around the rictus corners of the mouth.

Not all birds have bristles. Rictal bristles are prominent in many insectivorous birds, particularly aerial insectivores like nightjars Order Caprimulgiformes and flycatchers Family Tyrannidae , and may be used as sensory organs to help locate and capture prey, much like mammals use whiskers. In addition, bristles around the mouth may help protect the eyes from food items a bird is trying to capture Conover and Miller The photo to the right shows the rictal bristles of a Hooded Warbler.

Goose tongue -- The dorsal surface of the tongue of Middendorff's Bean Goose Anser fabalis middendorffii has an anterior region that extends for five-sixths of its length plus a posterior region.

Large conical papillae indicated by arrowhead to the right are located in a row between the anterior and posterior regions. On both sides of the anterior region, lingual papillae are compactly distributed, and small numbers of large conical papillae are found between the lingual papillae. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered by numerous fine processes, which help hold food on the tongue's surface. The taste buds of birds may be located in the upper beak epithelium, in the anterior mandible, and the mandibular epithelium posterior to the tongue.

Some taste buds are also located ventrolaterally on the anterior tongue. Arrows show lingual hairs on the lateral sides. Lingual papillae arrows are compactly distributed on the tongue, and large conical papillae arrowhead are scattered among them. Energy and nitrogen balance in a hummingbird -- Keeping fit and healthy on a low-fat, fiber-free diet isn't easy, but despite the nutritional disadvantages of life on a liquid lunch, hummingbirds flourish by supplementing their nectar intake with tiny arthropods.

But the beneficial snacks come at a high metabolic price; flies don't sit still, so hummingbirds work hard chasing their protein. Back in the lab, the team prepared nectar solutions with different concentrations of amino acids to see how much protein the birds needed to maintain a stable body weight.

By filming the birds as they sipped from feeders, they measured the amount of energy and nitrogen that the birds consumed. To calculate the bird's nitrogen uptake, they also needed to know how much waste nitrogen the birds lost. So, they collected all of the birds' feces, making sure that none dried out, and measured the nitrogen content. Not surprisingly, the birds that were fed small amounts of protein began losing weight quickly, even though they were able to sip as much high-energy nectar as they wanted.

However, the birds that were fed 1. What does that translate to in terms of flies? The birds that had a reduced nectar supply also maintained a stable weight, although they went into torpor overnight to conserve energy.

But the birds fed flies alone began losing weight, no matter how hard they worked to feed themselves. She suspects that although the flies should supply all of the hummingbirds needs, the birds simply have to work too hard to catch flies to rely on them as their soul food source.

Flush—pursuit foragers use exaggerated and animated foraging movements to flush potential insect prey that are then pursued and captured in flight. The Myioborus redstarts comprise 12 species of flush—pursuit warblers found in montane forests of the American tropics and subtropics. All members of the genus have contrasting black-and-white tail feathers that are exposed by spreading the tail during foraging.

Mumme examined plumage pattern and tail-spreading behavior to see how they affected flush—pursuit foraging performance of the Slate-throated Redstart Myioborus miniatus in Costa Rica. Although flycatching was the most common foraging tactic used by Slate-throated Redstarts, flush—pursuit prey attacks occurred more frequently following hops in the spread-tail foraging posture than hops in more typical warbler-like posture, suggesting that tail-spreading behavior assists in startling and flushing potential insect prey.

The hypothesis that the white tail feathers enhance flush—pursuit foraging was tested by means of a plumage-dyeing experiment. After locating nests, Mumme captured the male and female and assigned one member of each pair to the experimental treatment group; its mate served as a control. For experimental birds, a permanent marker was used to blacken the white tips of the three outer retrices. For experimental birds, only 7. These results indicate that white tail feathers are critically important in startling potential prey.

A great program for anyone that wants to go beyond the basics in understanding food. It is hard to choose one module that I liked best since I received valuable information in every lesson.

If I had to choose one I would choose the lessons on digestion because that was an area I needed to learn more about and experienced the most benefit from applying the knowledge I gained overall. I learned so many things and would highly recommend this academy.

Thanks for sharing your knowledge and experience. I like that the material is presented in different ways. For example I am a visual learner but also an audio one. So I will process better charts, graphs, pictures visually, but the material also sinks better when I listen to an explanation. I have been changing my diet and trying to get into an exercise routine for the past 10 years and my biggest downfall has always been SUGAR.

Super Nutrition Academy has helped me jump over the sugar hurdle. The thing I have enjoyed the very most with Super Nutrition Academy is the wealth of information and the delicious recipes.

The food is so extremely delicious and satisfying that your body is not interested in snacking between meals. The recipes are easy to prepare and great for the body.

I'm enjoying each module of the Super Nutrition Academy!! It's so interesting and well done. The best thing for me is that I can do it in the comfort of my own home at the time I choose. I love it and Yuri is so good for teaching nutrition. Thank you for the experience! So, I consider myself to already possess a fairly well read in the area of health, wellness and nutrition, with a decently solid foundation. From the Eating for Energy program I appreciated the thoroughness, depth, detail, and genuine balanced viewpoints.

Yuri continues this structure with the Super Nutrition Academy but goes deeper into each of the critical areas as they apply to the world of Nutrition. Bottom line is that Super Nutrition Academy is a very nicely detailed, yet condensed volume of invaluable information for anyone interested in the subject material. Yuri has clearly done his homework. He comes across as genuine and he espouses his views and opinions in an impartial manner, supported by documented research.

In fact, the original research on which the material is based is very clearly provided and this allows those of us who are really keenly interested in health and wellness to follow up with further reading of the supporting evidence on various topics, if we are so inclined.

I have only completed Module 1 so far, but I am very much looking forward to the following 11 Modules based on what I have learned so far. Specifically, I am no longer as fearful or adverse to carbohydrate consumption as I was prior to beginning the program, and I feel like my body is better off for it.

A small but tangible change in my daily eating habits that I believe is having a material, positive impact on my health. Super Nutrition Academy is an amazing experience. Every module is like a piece of a puzzle.

Only if you have all the pieces you can see a clear image. Having said that, I think that one of the most interesting modules is Module 6, because it explains how our immune system works and why we get sick. I think, once you understand that, you'll want to know what kind of diet will boost your health, and how cleansing can help as well.

I am a long distance runner and as you know this is an area that invovles many sport drinks and gels and other special products that provides you "all the mineral and carbohydrates and vitamins that you need" to complete a race. But you also get in a lot of suspicious substances, day in-day out, not only when you participate in a a race, but also when you train. So I don't like these products and I try to find natural foods that will help me accomplish my goals.

Super Nutrition Academy and Eating for Energy which is an amazing book gave me valuable information about how our body works, what is the importance of whole foods and how nutrients are metabolized inside our body.

Choosing whole foods, helped my health. Choosing when to eat what, helped my athletic performance. Thank you for this. Super Nutrition Academy has been a very informative and powerful learning resource regarding health issues. There is so much information out there and I'm really glad Yuri has deciphered it all and brought it to us in an uncomplicated format, without being biased at all by any money hungry organizations that only want to sell their own products and tweak results to suit.

I was very lost in the health world due to the conflicting information and didn't know who to trust. I have had several personal health issues with me or my close family, that leading medical organizations have not been able to point me in the right direction, even making ridiculous statements that it was possibly even my fault that this was happening!

So my search began for real answers that Super Nutrition Academy has already shed some light on in Module 1! Lesson 4 has been a real eye-opener because sugar is a big part of almost everyone's life even if we don't know it! I wish I would have enrolled in Super Nutrition Academy years ago! I hope that you will allow Super Nutrition Academy to empower you too.

Cancer is such an easy thing to fix once you know what it is. Really looking forward to the next 6 modules. If it was not for Yuri and Super Nutrition Academy I would be stuck in the "cookie cutter" ways of thinking about nutrition. I have taken college nutrition courses for years on end with little results for great health. This is a breath of fresh air and I would recommend Super Nutrition Academy to anyone who is tired of the same old ways that just don't make sense anymore.

I think the program as a whole is important because learning one part without the others will not help in understanding our bodies and what they really need to be well.

I have to admit, I have not gotten all the way through the whole 12 modules of the academy but, from what I have done I have really enjoyed it. I have also checked out your new podcast series and find it very helpful as well.

I run, bike , lift weights, and hike thinking I could burn more calories than I ingest.

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