CBSE Class VIII (8th) - Science Chapter 3. SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS

ICSE Grade 7

Notes of Ch 6 Life Process Part-I| Class 10th Science
However, for the award of the degree a student shall be required to earn the minimum of 54 Credits. How is the amount of urine produced regulated? Because of transpiration, a suction pressure is created as a result of which water is forced into the xylem cells of roots. Sea Stars - Information on its description, habitat, diet, breeding, etc. Different techniques for detailed and not-detailed study, preparatory work, actual study and following up in various useful ways.

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Aims and objectives of teaching Economics at secondary level. Specification of content for realisation of objectives. Integration of Economics with other School subjects. Teaching of Concepts in Economics. Lecture, debate, discussion, story telling method. Computer assisted instruction, modular, mastery. Seminars, conference, panel discussion, symposium. Principles of giving assignments, types of assignments,. Importance of teaching aids, different types of teaching aids and their effective use in teaching of Economics.

Nature of educational evaluation, its need, role in educational process. Evaluation procedure for appraising learners performance, uses of evaluation. Behavioural approach to testing instructional objectives in Economics. Openbook examination, evaluating project work, question bank. Heinemann Educational Books, Prentice Hall. McGraw Hill Book Company. Rajasthan Hindi Granth Academy.

The Contribution of Economics to General Education. Hien Manns Education Book Ltd. This course has been developed to familiarise the student-teachers of B. After completing this course, student-teachers will be able to: Nature of business studies, its scope, its delimitation at the school level, justification of its introduction at school level, its place in the school curriculum. Importance of teaching aids, types of teaching-aids, scope of using teaching-aids for the teaching of business studies.

Business studies based co-curricular activities and their utility, linkage of school and outside organisations for strengthening business studies knowledge. Selection of text-books, reference books and journals. Concepts of evaluation, measurement and tests, types of tests, developing different types of tests in business studies. Preparing an Achievement Test, Types of test items. The Interstate Printers and Publishers. Tonne, Herbhert and Lovis C. This course has been developed to familiarize the student-teachers of B.

Nature and Need of Accounting. Development of Accounting Curriculum. Technique of developing accounting curriculum, a critical appraisal of the CBSE accounting syllabus. Objectives of Teaching Accounting. Use of softwares and hardwares for the teaching of accountancy, including the use of computers. Methods and Techniques of Teaching Accounting. Different types of co-curricular activities for strengthening the learning of accounting.

Integration of Accountancy with other subjects. Approaches to Teaching Accounting Cycle. Concept of accounting cycle, completing accounting cycle through the following approaches: Comparative study of these approaches. Qualities of an ideal accounting teacher, avenues available for professional growth. South Western Publishing Co. Musselman, Vernon A and J. This course is to deal with the entire range of activities associated with the teaching of Home Science at the Higher Secondary level.

The specific course objectives and unit-wise content are given as under: The student teacher will be able to: Unit 1 Meaning and Scope of Home Science. The modern meaning of Home Science and its place in Secondary School.

Status of Home Science. Scope of Home Science in School Curriculum. Computer as tool for instruction. Use of community resources. Audio visual aids in teaching of Home Science. Principles of curriculum planning and development of Home Science Syllabus. Characteristics of a good a Home Science. Use and Management of Home Science Laboratory. Unit 4 Correlation of Home Science with other subjects. Correlation of Home Science with other subjects and School activities. Teaching of Human Development.

Teaching of Foods and Nutrition. Teaching of Textiles and Clothing. Teaching Community Resource Management and Extension. Unit 6 Evaluation in Home Science. Techniques for assessment in theory and practicals. Diagnostic and remedial measures in Home Science.

Unit 7 Practical Oriented Assignments. Planning and Organization of Science Laboratory. Development of TV and Radio Lesson. Development of Computer assisted lesson in Home Science. Co-curricular activities in Home Science. The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook 1: The Indian Constitution under Article 45 categorically made provision of free and compulsory education to all the children upto the age of 14 years which has not been achieved even after more than 50 years.

National Policy on Education too envisaged certain thrust areas for achieving the goal of UEE, putting special reference to ECCE, Education of the weaker section, disadvantaged group and especially of the girl child.

But still there is much need to be done both at the level of planning and its implementation through making Elementary Education as an emerging need. Objectives to develop, understanding about the need of elementary education: National Policy of Education — , , including programme of Action for revised National Policy on Education This is a course in measurement and evaluation in the field of education for prospective teachers, counsellers, instructional designers, administrator who are going to be engaged in the development and use of educational measures and are preparing for the first degree programme in education.

The course aimed at: Linn, edited book on Educational Measurement. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. Pentice Hall of India Pvt. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Nature, purpose and need for guidance and counselling principles and types of guidance and counselling characteristics of an effective counsellor. Group Guidance - Concept, need, significance and principles.

Organisation of group-guidance activities. Standardized and non-standardized techniques and their relative use in collecting information, organization of guidance programmes in schools. Collection, types, classification and dissemination of information.

Concept, importance and process of career development various theories related to career development; career patterns; career maturity, and vocational career. Behaviour problems of students with special needs, viz. Provision of facilities at governmental and non-governmental level. Crow and Crow , Introduction to Guidance, 2 nd Ed.

Jayaswal, Monica , Guidance and Counselling, Lucknow: Concept and meaning of special education its aims, aims of Special Education - Educational provisions, recommendations of Education NPE with regard to special education special schools, integrated education for disabled children. Definition of blindness and low vision. Curriculum and teaching adaptation. Class room management, vocational preparation ,and employment opportunities. Definition of deafness and partial hearing. Tools and techniques, class room management, vocational preparation ,and employment opportunities.

Definition of mental retardation. Class room management, vocational preparation, and employment opportunities. Definition of orthopaedic handicap. Adaptive devices, adaptive evaluation procedures, tools and techniques. Classroom management, vocational preparation and employment opportunities. To enable the student — teacher to: Federation of Management of Educational Institutions.

Lal Book Depot Hindi. Indian culture and human values spiritual values. Unit 3 Moral Learning to Moral Education. Nature of society and moral learning. Media and moral learning. Newman, Fred , Education for Citizen Action: To enable the student teacher understand about the concept of environmental education.

To develop in the student teacher a sense of awareness about the environmental pollution, and possible hazards and its causes and remedies. To develop reasonable understanding about the role of school and education in fostering the idea of learning to live in harmony with nature. To enable the students to understand about the various measures available to conserve the environment for sustaining the development.

Conservation of genetic diversity. An important environment priority: To enable the students to understand various terminology connected with population studies and factors responsible for population growth.

To develop an awareness in the student teacher of the implications of population growth on various aspects of social functioning. To help student teacher to understand the effect of unchecked growth of population on the depletion of natural resources from the environment. To help student teacher to appreciate the role of population education as an educational intervention for upgrading the quality of social functioning.

Nature and scope of population education: Age, sex, rural, urban, literacy — all India. Population in relation to: Scope of population education in schools. Inquiry approach, observation, self-study, discussions, assignments. Newspapers, Radio, Television, A. Teacher role in creating awareness of the consequences of population problems, inculcating new values and attitudes leading to modification of student behaviour.

To acquaint the student teachers with the concept and concerns of educational administration. To develop an understanding of the role of the headmaster and the teacher in school management. To enable the students to understand to concept at importance of communication and its possible barriers in educational administration. To enable the student teacher to critically analyse the administrative scenario in relation to the functioning of the other secondary schools of the area.

To acquaint the student teacher with the scientific practices of educational management and keep him to apply it in work situation. Concept of educational administration. Basic functions of administration — planning, organizing directing and controlling. Role of communication in effective management and administration. Role of headmaster in planning of school activities, approaches to management — manpower approach, cost benefit approach, social demand approach, social justice approach.

The administrative structure in the field of education in the state. All the students will undergo full time intensive School experience programme for thirty working days between November and January as per the convenience of respective Practice Schools. External evaluation will be done by a Board of Examiners comprising of an Internal and an External examiner appointed by the University on the basis of relevant records such as lesson plans, teaching aids, used during the practice teaching, observation record, school profile etc.

In case of assignments one shall be related to theory and record shall relate to the field investigation. Create a digital Unit Plan portfolio with the following elements: Component I shall be evaluated by the Internal Faculty.

The students will be evaluated for component IV on the basis of the digital portfolio they create. Each record shall carry equal marks: Visual Education — Charts, Three dimensional model, college magazine or scrap — book. The Viva — Voce will conducted on the basis of records generated under the above heads of activities and all the five activities.

Experience in a School based activity which the student-teacher could handle as a SUPW activity for students. End product to be submitted for evaluation by external examiners. Cost effective teaching aids. Setting up mathematics laboratory. At least any two of the above activities to be offered by each student. Participation in college, University activities. Conceptualizing, conducting and reporting of two different kinds of events organised for School students during internship period.

Attachment with NGOs or social agency preparation of report. The importance of providing special language course at the higher secondary level; language courses for science, medicine, engineering, journalism, law and literature, etc. Place and objective of literature in a school course in English with special reference to the higher secondary level. Methods and materials for developing study skill in English literary-forms: Use of cultural context and dictionary and other relevant sources for better comprehensions; discussion and self study.

Development of appreciation, skills of comprehension in relation to art of interpretation and the ways of developing the latter; development of judgement and evaluation of literary writing; relative importance of classics and popular literature in English. Developing wider reading interests. Procuring and using suitable library materials. Arranging displays of new books, book lists, book reviews and journals suitable for the pupils, organising other literary activities like discussion on various books read.

Developing writing skills, exercise in current writing-grammar exercises, synthesis and transformation of sentences, paragraph writing, precis writing, note taking and reporting adapting and reviewing.

Exercises in creative writing, free composition writing, letter writing, essay and dialogue writing, dramatic writing; diary entries and poems. Developing advanced oral skills. Exercises in reading with expression, literary texts of suitable poems, plays and stories. Use of suitable audio-materials, recorded reading of literary text of various types, broadcasts and T.

Use of language laboratories. Planning lessons in Prose, Poetry, Drama, Novel, etc. Different techniques for detailed and not-detailed study, preparatory work, actual study and following up in various useful ways. Poetry and Drama presented orally; place and use of discussion and interpretation methods, rather than explanation; focussing on a Emotion and imagery in poetry lessons; b Character and incident in Drama and Novels c Idea and argument in essays.

Evaluating achievements in English at the advanced level, using objective, short answer type and essay tests judiciously criteria for marking creative writings, methods of evaluating interest and extent in wider reading. Planning teachings of English at the Higher Secondary level; Allocation of adequate total time, proper provisioning in the time-table for various skills. Procurement of suitable books and other material for the School and Class Libraries and facility for pupils to use Audio-Visual Aids T.

Planning session, annual and occasional tests and their weightage in the final assessment. Professional growth and leadership in the field. Objectives of Teaching Physics. Biology Online - Information in the life sciences in the form of tutorials , references , an online dictionary of biology terms and a biology forum.

Scientific discovery is not always as well planned as the scientific method may seem to suggest. Sometimes new knowledge comes simply from being in the right place at the right time or from being particularly aware of the unusual. The opposite of the scientific method and its organized planning is discovery by "accident".

A hypothesis is a guess as to why something happens. Observations lead to questions regarding the event. Why is the sky blue?

How does gravity affect falling objects? In attempting to answer a question about the nature of the world, a scientist will form a hypothesis or a guess regarding the question's answer. Experiments, data gathering and study will then help the scientist to reach a conclusion. References for the Scientific Method: WATER - Living things are built almost entirely of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and water.

Water is vital to life because it forms the basis of many body fluids, it is imbibed by structures such as seeds, and it controls temperature regulation. Biology and Water Lesson 1: Principles of Ecology - Biology: Temperature Coriolis Effect Atm.

For information on the Cambrian period: For information on the "tree of life" quite relevant to taxonomy: For general information on evolution: Ferns reawakened What is Evolution? Evolution in the above links is based on current scientific evidence. Beagle as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South America, and in the geographical relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent.

See 72, image results for dinosaurs. Zoom Dinosaurs - EnchantedLearning. Try this search facility - just click on the first letter of what you need information on. Periodic Chart of the Elements with correlation to their health aspects - http: Taxonomy Detailed information and examples and links to database searches are found on our Microscopy Page Paragraph 3.

All life forms are composed of basic chemical elements. Atomic elements prefer to exist as molecules. Earth life thrives on water. Life is built up from some very common materials. There is one substance though that is more complicated and vital to life. A Dutch biochemist, named Mulder, first used the word "protein" in He got the word form a Greek word meaning "holding first place.

Although proteins are complicated they consist the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Some parts of the human body contain more than other parts but it exists is some amount in all parts of the body and it is vital for life to exist. There is no living organism that does not contain protein.

Viruses for example contain a complicated type of protein called nucleoprotein. When proteins are exposed to an acid the protein breaks apart into smaller molecules. These smaller molecules are called amino-acids. Millions of different proteins can be formed from the combinations of different amino-acid molecules.

Some common proteins are: Difference Patterson Tutorial; PR Enzymes control body chemistry. The enzymes of the human body work by means of surface catalysis http: That is the surface of the enzyme enables other molecules to react in a manner they would not without the surface of the enzyme present.

The enzyme being the catalyst is not changed in any manner from the action of the protein. The human body contains only a small quantity of enzymes but even this small quantity is sufficient. They are important to many functions including food digestion.

For an explanation of what an enzyme is click here http: Some, however such as egg cells of birds, can be seen with the naked eye. Others, like nerve cells, may be very small in some of their dimensions, but extremely long; a single human nerve cell may be as much as 3 or 4 feet long, and an elephant's nerve cell may be even longer.

To say that cells are generally small is not saying much, however, because even among microscopic cells there is a wide range in size. Biologists took it for granted that cells are bounded by a membrane - the plasma membrane, as it is often called. Cell image from http: The cell membrane is not simply an envelope giving mechanical strength and shape and some protection to the cell, though these functions are important. It regulates the traffic in materials between the precisely ordered interior of the cell and essentially unfavorable and potentially disruptive outer environment.

Usually portions of the cell flow around the material, enclosing it within a chamber. When the engulfed material is liquid or consists of very small particles, the process is often termed pinocytosis. Cell Biology Links - Click on the links below for detailed information. Everything you need to know about Protonema. Moss gametophytes and sporophytes Moss capsule Moss antheridia Moss archegonia Marchantia thallus Marchantia archegonia Marchantia antheridia. Ligustrum Leaf Cross Section.

Evergreen ligustrum often called privet shrubs and trees thrive throughout the state of Florida. They are widely used as landscape shrubs, hedges, and specimen trees. Many species and cultivars are available with a diversity of leaf colors, leaf forms, and growth habits.

All selections are tolerant of heavy pruning, which makes them suited for clipped hedges. Because of a rapid growth rate, many require pruning to maintain them within bounds. The white flowers are attractive during late spring and early summer.

However, the pungent odor may be objectionable. The nucleus plays the central role in cellular reproduction, the process whereby a single cell undergoes cell division and forms two new cells. The nucleus directs the metabolic activities of the living cell and guides the life of the cell as long as it lives. They are composed of nucleic acid and protein. The chromosomes bear, apparently in linear arrangement, the basic units of heredity, called genes.

They are the code units of the transmission of bits of information from parent to offspring, and for the determination of the enzymes that so precisely regulate the myriad interdependent chemical reactions of life.

Genes and Chromosomes - Biology: DNA in a Nutshell! DNA - From the Beginning. Primer on Molecular Genetics from the U. Up to 3 fragments may be cloned at a time can you replicate that in the lab? Each fragment may be inverted relative to its original orientation.

Genetic elements contained in the cloned fragments are transferred to the cloned DNA. We found an excellent Genetics tutorial: You will have to register to view it but it is free. A virus can multiply only inside a host cell, whose genetic mechanisms it subverts for its own reproduction.

Both the structure of the virus and its mode of replication differ widely between viruses. The usual outcome of a viral infection is the lysis destruction of the infected cell, with the release of viral particles.

Some viruses, however, can instead become integrated into the host chromosome, where their genes are replicated along with those of the host cell. Because viruses sometimes carry host DNA sequences from one species to another, they make possible an occasional mixing of different gene pools during their evolution.

Virulent viruses usually kill the cells they infect. Other viruses, although also often able to kill cells, frequently have a more subtle effect.

These viruses are called temperate. Virus infected bacteria which appear un-infected but have the hereditary ability to produce phage, are called lysogenic. Upon infection, genes promoting both lytic growth and lysogenic integration are expressed. Which pathway succeeds is determined by the competing action of these early gene products and by the influence of host factors. The lambda phage is a well studied temperate phage which can grow in synchrony with its host E.

The lytic cycle is that part of the life cycle of a temperate phage in which it multiplies rapidly, destroying its host and releasing many copies into the medium. The pathway genes in the lambda immunity region are: The lambda system provides one of the best studied examples of a genetic switch.

Two back-to-back promoters in the region of cI and cro control the genetic switch. When cI is present it activates its own synthesis and blocks transcription of cro. When cI is inactivated, transcription of cro can occur, resulting in the lytic cycle. The cI protein combines with the operator, Or. Polymerase are enzymes producing a polynucleotide sequence, complementary to a pre-existing template polynucleotide.

Polymerization is the combination of several molecules to form a more complex molecule, usually by addition or a condensation process. It is sometimes a reversible process. Biology I Reference Sites. Gram Negative Stain - Red or pinkish.

Why does it stain this way? The color differences are sometimes subtle so learn to recognize the differences! When, as the result of my first communications on the fermentations in , it appeared that the ferments, properly so-called, are living beings, that the germs of microscopic organisms abound in the surface of all objects, in th air and in water; that the theory of spontaneous generation is chimerical; Book Directory Computational Molecular Biology: An Integration of Chemistry Click on the names in the List below for detailed information.

It is known for its nitrogen fixing abilities, and they form symbiotic relationships with certain plants, such as the mosquito fern. They are one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins , which are harmful to local wildlife, as well as farm animals and pets.

Joint-Legs Phylum Arthropoda M Those That Sting - Visit the Oregon Coast Aquarium's virtual jellyfish exhibit to learn about the jellyfish's biology, life cycle, relatives and even see live pictures on the JellyCam. Also has two classroom activities, one K-4 and the other Introduction to the Ctenophora - Information on ctenophores "comb jellies" with links to cnidarian and jellyfish information. Invasion of the jellyfish. Sea Stars - Information on its description, habitat, diet, breeding, etc.

Confocal Image Gallery - Marchantia Sporophyte. Deuterostomia - Lophotrochozoans vs. Metabolic Pathways Wall Chart. You can access the individual images by clicking in a reduced image of an entire section of the wall chart use the linkS below. Stem Cells; Scientific Progress and A Global Resource Scientific American: Science and the Citizen: If you enjoy caring for people and are intrigued by a job where you will constantly learn and interact with people, than learn more about online medical assisting degrees.

As a medical assistant, you will work closely with a physician and perform clinical tasks as well as work on administrative tasks. Human Anatomy Online - InnerBody. What is zoology anyway? The study of animals. The branch of biology that studies and classifies animals and animal life. It is a branch of biology that is concerned with the scientific study of animals, including their biology, distribution, and identification and including the study of animals - mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, and mollusks including mussels.

The science and history of the animal kingdom, including its king, the House Fly Musca maledicta. The father of Zoology was Aristotle, as is universally conceded, but the name of its mother has not come down to us.

Two of the science's most illustrious expounders were Buffon and Oliver Goldsmith, from both of whom we learn L'Histoire generale des animaux and A History of Animated Nature that the domestic cow sheds its horn every two years. OK, OK enough of the definitions - now tell me some zoology details. I want details please. Animals - Animal Kingdom Sites. University of Michigan - Zoology BiologyBrowser. General animal kingdom sites: Since the [natural] history of man interests us most directly and should stand as the basis of comparison to which we submit the accounts of all other animals, we shall treat it in greater detail.

Amphibians Loads of information on amphibians. Includes a tutorial on amphibian embryonic development, amphibian pictures and more.

CBSE Science Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10th - Solved Exercises